Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms (2022)

Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms

Prefixes and Combining Forms

a-, an- absenceor lack acardia, lack of a heart; anaerobic, in theab­sence of oxygen

ab- departing from: away from abnormal, departing from normal

acou- hearing acoustics,the science of sound

ac-,aero- extreme orextremity; peak acrodermatitis, inflammation of the skin of the extremities

ad-to or toward adorbital, toward the orbit

aden-, adeno- gland adeniform, resembling a gland in shape

adren- toward the kidney adrenal gland, adjacent to the kidney

aero-air aerobic respiration, oxygen-requiringmetabolism

af- toward afferent neurons, which carry impulses to thecentral ner­vous system

agon- contestagonistic andantagonistic muscles, which oppose each other

alb-white corpus albicans of the ovary, a white scartissue

ailment- nourish alimentary canal, or digestive tract

allel- of one another alleles,alternative expressions of a gene

amphi- on both sides; of both kinds amphibian, an organism capa­ble of living in water and onland

ana- apart, up, again anaphase of mitosis, when the chromosomes separate

anastomos- come together arteriovenousanastomosis, a connection between an artery and avein

aneurysm awidening aortic aneurism,a weak spot that causes en­largement of the blood vessel

angi- vessel angiitis,inflammation of a lymph vessel or blood vessel

angin- choked anginapectoris, a choked feeling in the chest clue to dysfunction of the heart

ant-,anti- opposed to;preventing or inhibiting anticoagulant,a sub­stance that prevents blood coagulation

ante-preceding; before antecubital, in front of the elbow

aort- great artery aorta

ap-, api- tip, extremity apexof the heart

append- hang to appendicular skeleton

aqua-,aque- water aqueoussolutions

arbortree arbor vitae of the cerebellum, the treelikepattern of white matter

areola- open spaceareolar connectivetissue, a loose connective tissue

arrect- upright arrector pili muscles of the skin, whichmake the hairs stand erect

arthr-, arthro- joint arthropathy, any joint disease

artic-joint articular surfaces of bones, the points ofconnection

atri- vestibule atria,upper chambers of the heart

auscult- listen auscultatorymethod for measuring blood pressure

aut-, auto- self autogenous, self-generated

ax-, axi-,axo- axis, axle axial skeleton, axis ofvertebral column

azyg- unpaired azygous vein, anunpaired vessel

baro- pressure baroreceptors for monitoring blood pressure

basalbase basal lamina of epithelial basementmembrane

bi-two bicuspid, having two cusps

bill-bile bilirubin, a bile pigment

bio-life biology, the study of life and livingorganisms

blast- bud orgerm blastocyte, undifferentiated embryonic cell

brachi- arm bracbialplexus of peripheral nervous system supplies the arm

brady- slow bradycardia,abnormally slow heart rate

brev- short peroneus brevis, a short leg muscle

broncho- bronchus bronchospasm, spasmodic contraction of bronchial muscle

bucco- cheek buccolabial,pertaining to the cheek and lip

calor- heat calories,a measure of energy

capill- hair bloodand lymph capillaries

caput- head decapitate, remove the head carcin- cancer carcinogen, acancer-causing agent cardi, cardio- heart cardiotoxic, harmful to the heart carneo-flesh trabeculae carneae, ridges of musclein the ventricles of the heart

carot- 1) carrot, 2) stupor 1) carotene, an orange pigment; 2) carotid arteries in the neck,blockage causes fainting

cata- down catabolism,chemical breakdown

caud- tail caudal(directional term)

cec- blind cecum oflarge intestine, a blind-ended pouch

cele- abdominal celiacartery, in the abdomen

cephal- head cephalometer,an instrument for measuring the head

cerebro- brain, especially the cerebrum cerebrospinal, pertaining to the brain and spinal cord

cervic-, cervix neck cervix of the uterus

chiasm- crossing optic chiasma,where optic nerves cross

chole- bile cholesterol;cholecystokinin, a bile-secreting hormone

chondr- cartilage chondrogenic, giving rise to cartilage

chrom- colored chromosome,so named because they stain darkly

cili- small hair ciliatedepithelium

circum- around circumnuclear, surrounding the nucleus

clavic- key clavicle,a "skeleton key"

co-, con- together concentric,common center, together in the center

coccy- cuckoo coccyx,which is beak-shaped

cochlea snailshell the cochlea of theinner ear, which is coiled like a snail shell

coel- hollow coelom,the ventral body cavity

commis- united gray commissure of the spinal cord connects the two columns ofgray matter

concha shellnasal conchae, coiled shelves of bone in the nasal cavity

contra- against contraceptive, agent preventing conception

corn-,cornu- horn stratum corneum, outer layer of the skincom­posed of (horny) cells

corona crown coronal suture of the skull

corp- body corpse,corpus luteum, hormone-secreting body in the ovary

cort- barkcortex, the outerlayer of the brain, kidney, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes

cost-rib intercostal, between the ribs

crani- skull craniotomy,a skull operation

crypt- hidden cryptomenorrhea, a condition in which menstrual symptomsare experienced but no external loss of blood occurs

cusp-pointed bicuspid, tricuspid valves of the heart

cutic- skin cuticleof the nail

cyan-blue cyanosis, blue color of the skin due tolack of oxygen

cyst-sac, bladder cystitis, inflammation of the urinarybladder

cyt- cell cytology, the study of cells

de-undoing, reversal,loss, removal deactivation,becoming inactive

decid- falling off deciduous(milk) teeth

deltatriangular deltoid muscle, roughly triangular in shape

den-,dent- tooth dentin of the tooth

dendr- tree, branch dendrites, telodendria, both branches ofa neuron

derm- skin dermis,deep layer of the skin

desm- bond desmosome,which binds adjacent epithelial cells

di- twice, double dimorphism,having two forms

dia- through, between diaphragm, the wall through or between two areas

dialys- separate, break apart kidney dialysis, in which waste prod­ucts are removed from theblood

diastol- stand apartcardiac diastole,between successive contrac­tions of the heart

diure- urinate diuretic,a drug that increases urine output

dors- the back dorsal;dorsum; dorsiflexion

due-,duct lead, draw ductus deferens which carries sperm fromthe epididymis into the urethra during ejaculation

durahard dura mater, tough outer meninx

dys- difficult, faulty, painful dyspepsia, disturbed digestion

ec-, ex-, ecto- out, outside, away from excrete, to remove materials

from the body ectop- displaced ectopic pregnancy; ectopic focus forinitiation of

heart contraction

edem-swelling edema, accumulation of water in bodytissues ef- away efferent nervefibers, which carry impulses away from the

central nervous system ejac-to shoot forth ejaculation of semen

embol- wedge embolus,an obstructive object traveling in the blood­stream

en-, em- in, inside encysted, enclosed in acyst or capsule enceph- brain encephalitis,inflammation of the brain endo- within,inner endocytosis, taking particles into a cell entero-intestine enterologist,one who specializes in the study of

intestinal disorders

epi-over, above epidermis, outer layer of skin erythr- red erythema,redness of the skin; erythrocyte, red blood cell eso-within esophagus

eu- well euesthesiaa normal state of the senses excret separateexcretory system exo- outside,outer layer exophthalmos, an abnormal protrusionof

the eye from the orbit extra- outside, beyond extracellular, outside the body cells ofan

organism

extrins- from theoutside extrinsicregulation of the heart fasci-, fascia- bundle,band superficial and deep fascia fenestr-window fenestrae of the inner ear;fenestrated capillaries ferr- iron transferrin,ferritin, both iron-storage proteins flagell- whip flagellum, the tail of asperm cell flat- blow, blown flatulence folli-bag, bellows hair follicle fontan-fountain fontanels of the fetal skull foram-opening foramen magnum of the skull foss- ditchfossa ovalis of the heart; mandibularfossa of the skull gam-, garnet- married,spouse gametes, the sex cells gangli- swelling,or knot dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerves gastr- stomach gastrin, ahormone that influences gastric acid

secretion

gene beginning, origin genetics germin-grow germinal epithelium of the gonads gero-,geront- old man gerontology, the study ofaging gest- carried gestation,the period from conception to birth glauc- grayglaucoma, which causes gradual blindness glom- ball glomerali, clusters of capillaries in the kidneys glosso- tongue glossopathy,any disease of the tongue gluco-, glyco- gluconeogenesis, theproduction of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules

glute- buttock gluteusmaximus, largest muscle of the buttock gnost- knowing the gnosticsense, a sense of awareness of self gompho- nailgomphosis, the term applied to the jointbetween

tooth and jaw

gon-, gono- seed, offspring gonads, the sexorgans gust- taste gustatory sense, the sense of taste hapt- fasten, grasp hapten, a partial antigen

hema-, hemato-, hemo- blood hematocyst,a cyst containing blood hemi- half hemiglossal,pertaining to one-half of the tongue hepat-liver hepatitis, inflammation of the liver hetero- differentor other heterosexuality, sexual desire, for a person

of the opposite sex hiat-gap the hiatus of the diaphragm, the opening through which

the esophagus passes

hippo- horse hippocampus of the brain, shaped like a seahorse hirsut- hairy hirsutism,excessive body hair hist- tissuehistology, the study of tissues holo- wholeholocrine glands, whose secretions are whole cells horn-, homo- samehomeoplasia, formation of tissue similar to nor­maltissue; homocentric, having the same center

hormon- to excite hormones

humor- a fluid humoral immunity, which involves antibodies circu­latingin the blood

hyal- clear hyalinecartilage, which has no visible fibers

hydr-, hydro- water dehydration, loss of body water

hyper-excess hypertension, excessive tension

hypno- sleep hypnosis,a sleeplike state

hypo-below, deficient hypodermic, beneath the skin;hypokalemia, deficiency of potassium

hyster-, hystero- uterus or womb hysterectomy, removal of the uterus; hysterodynia, pain in the womb

ile- intestine ileum,the last portion of the small intestine

itn- not impermeable,not permitting passage, not permeable

inter-between intercellular, between the cells

intercal- insert intercalateddiscs, the end membranes between ad­jacent cardiac muscle cells

intra- within,inside intracellular,inside the cell

iso- equal, same isothermal,equal, or same, temperature

jugul- throat jugularveins, prominent vessels in the neck

juxta- near, close to juxtaglomerularapparatus, a cell cluster next to the glomeruli inthe kidneys

karyo- kernal nucleus karyotype, the assemblage of the nuclear chromosomes

kera- horn keratin,the water-repellent protein of the skin

kilo-thousand kilocalories, equal to one thousandcalories

kin-,kines- move kineticenergy, the energy of motion

labi-, labri- lip labial frenulum, the membrane whichjoins the lip to the gum

lact- milk lactose,milk sugar

lacun- space, cavity, lake lacunae, the spaces occupied by cells of cartilage and bone tissue

latnell- small plate concentriclamellae, rings of bone matrix in compact bone

lamina layer,sheet basal lamina, partof the epithelial basement membrane

lat-wide latissimus dorsi, a broadmuscle of the back

laten- hidden latentperiod of a muscle twitch

later-side lateral (directional term)

leuko- white leukocyte,white blood cell

leva- raise, elevate levator labii superioris, muscle that elevates up­per lip

lingua- tongue lingual tonsil, adjacent to the tongue

lip-,lipo- fat, lipid lipophage, a cell that has taken up fat in its cytoplasm

lith- stone cholelithiasis, gallstones

luci- clear stratumlucidum, clear layer of the epidermis

lumenlight lumen, center of a hollow structure

lut- yellow corpusluteum, a yellow, hormone-secreting structure in the ovary

lymphwater lymphatic circulation, return of clearfluid to the bloodstream

macro- large macromolecule, large molecule

macula spot macula lutea,yellow spot on the retina

magn- large foramenmagnum, largest opening of the skull

mal-bad, abnormal malfunction, abnormal functioning of anorgan

minim- breast mammary gland, breast

mast-breast mastectomy, removal of a mammary gland

matermother dura mater, pia mater, membranes thatenvelop the brain

meat-passage external auditory meatus, the ear canal

medi- middle medial(directional term)

medull- marrow medulla,the middle portion of the kidney, adrenal gland, and lymph node

mega- large megakaryocyte,large precursor cell of platelets

meio- less meiosis,nuclear division that halves the chromosome number

melan- black melanocytes,which secrete the black pigment melanin

men-,menstru- month menses,the cyclic menstrual flow

meningo- membrane meningitis,inflammation of the membranes

of the brain mer-,mero-, apart merocrine glands, thesecretions of which do not

include the cell

meso- middle mesoderm,middle germ layer meta- beyond, between, transition metatarsus,the part of the foot

between the tarsus and the phalanges

metro- uterus metroscope, instrument for examining the uterus micro-small microscope, an instrument used to make small objects

appear larger

mictur- urinate micturition,the act of voiding the bladder mito- thread, filament mitochondria, small, filamentlikestructures

located in cellsmnem- memory amnesia mono- singlemonospasm, spasm of a single limb morpho- form morphology, the study of form andstructure or

organisms

multi- many multinuclear, having several nuclei mural wall intramuralganglion, a nerve junction within an organ muta-change mutation, change in the base sequence of DNA myelo- spinal cord, marrow myeloblasts, cells of the bone marrow myo-muscle myocardium, heart muscle nano-dwarf nanometer, one billionth of a meter narco- numbness narcotic, a drug producing stupor ornumbed

sensations

natri-sodium atrial natriureticfactor, a sodium-regulating hormone necro- deathnecrosis, tissue death neo- new neoplasm, an abnormal growth nephro- kidney nephritis, inflammationof the kidney neuro- nerve neurophysiology,the physiology of the nervous system noci- harmfulnociceptors, receptors for pain nom- nameinnominate artery; innominatebone noto-back notochord, theembryonic structure that precedes the

vertebral column

nucle- pit, kernel, little nut nucleus nutri- feed,nourish nutrition

ob- before, against obstruction, impeding or blocking up oculo- eye monocular, pertaining toone eye odonto- teeth orthodontist,one who specializes in proper position­ing of the teeth in relation to eachother olfact- smell olfactorynerves

oligo- few oligodendrocytes, neuroglial cells with few branches onco- a mass oncology, study of canceroo- egg ocyte,precursor of female gamete ophthalmo- eye ophthalmology, the study ofthe eyes and related

disease

orb-circular orbicularis oculi, musclethat encircles the eye orchi- testiscryptorchidism, failure of the testes to descendinto the

scrotum

org- living organism ortho- straight, direct orthopedic, correction of deformities ofthe

musculoskeletal system osm-smell anosmia, loss of sense of smell osmo- pushing osmosis

osteo- bone osteodermia,bony formations in the skin oto- earotoscope, a device for examining the ear ov-, ovi- egg ovum,oviduct

oxy- oxygen oxygenation, the saturationof a substance with oxygen pan- all, universal panacea, acure-all papill- nippledermal papillae, projections of the dermis into the

epidermal area para- beside, near paraphrenitis,inflammation of tissues adjacent

to the diaphragm

pect-, pectus breast pectoralis major, a large chest muscle pelv- a basin pelvic girdle, whichcradles the pelvic organs peni- atail penis,- penile urethra penna- awing unipennate, bipennatemuscles, whose fascicles have

a feathered appearance pent- five pentose,a 5-carbon sugar

pep-,peps-, pept- digest pepsin,a digestive enzyme of the stomach;

peptic ulcer

per-,perinea- through permeate; permeable peri-around perianal, situated around the anus phago- eat phagocyte, a cell thatengulfs and digests particles or cells pheno-show, appear phenotype, the physical appearance of an in­dividual

phleb- vein phlebitis,inflammation of the veins pia tender pia mater, delicate innermembrane around the brain and

spinal cord pili hairarrector pili muscles of the skin, which make the hairs

stand erect

pin-,pino- drink pinocytosis,the process of a cell in small particles platy- flat, broad platysma, broad, flat muscle of the neck pleur- side, rib pleural serosa, the membrane that lines the thoracic

cavity and covers the lungs plex-,plexus net, network brachial plexus, the network of nerves

that supplies the arm

pneumo air, windpneumothorax, air in the thoracic cavity pod- footpodiatry, the treatment of foot disorders poly- multiple polymorphism,multiple forms post- after, behind posterior, places behind (aspecific) part pre-, pro- before, ahead of prenatal, before birthprocto- rectum, anus proctoscope, an instrument for examining the

rectum

pron- bent forward prone;pronate propri- one's own proprioception, awareness of body partsand

movement

pseudo- false pseudotumor, a false tumor psycho- mind,psyche psychogram, a chart of personality traits ptos- fall renal ptosis, a conditionin which the kidneys drift below

their normal position pub- ofthepubis puberty

pulmo-lung pulmonary artery, which brings blood to thelungs pyo- pus pyocyst, a cyst that contains pus pyro-fire pyrogen, a substance that inducesfever quad-, quadr- four-sided quadratus lumborum, a muscle with a

square shape re- back, again reinfect rect- straightrectus abdominis,rectum ren- kidney renal, renin,an enzyme secreted by the kidney retin, retic- net,network endoplasmic reticulum, anetwork of

membranous sacs within a cell retro- backward, behind retrogression, to move backward in

development rheum- watery flow, change,or flux rheumatoid arthritis,

rheumatic fever

rhin-, rhino- nose rhinitis, inflammation of the nose ruga-fold, wrinkle rugae, the folds of thestomach, gallbladder, and

urinary bladder

sagitt- arrow sagittal(directional term) salta- leap saltatoryconduction, the rapid conduction of impulses

along myelinatedneurons sanguin- blood consanguineous,indicative of a genetic relationship

between individuals

sarco- flesh sarcomere, unit of contraction in skeletal muscle saphen-visible, clear great saphenous vein,superficial vein of the

thigh and leg

sclero- hard sclerodermatitis, inflammatory thickening and harden­ing of the skin

seb- grease sebum, the oil of the skin semen seed,sperm semen, the discharge of themale reproductive

system

semi-half semicircular, having the form of half acircle sens- feeling sensation; sensory septi- rotten sepsis, infection,-antiseptic septum fence nasal septum sero-serum serological tests, which assess blood conditions

serrat- saw serratusanterior, a muscle of the chest wall that has a jagged edge

sin-, sino- ahollow sinuses of the skull

soma-body somatic nervous system

somnus sleep insomnia,inability to sleep

sphin- squeeze sphincter

splanchn- organ splanchnicnerve, autonomic supply to abdominal viscera

spondyl- vertebra ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis af­fectingthe spine

squam- scale, flat squamousepithelium, squamous suture of the skull

steno- narrow stenocoriasis, narrowing of the pupil

strat- layer strataof the epidermis, stratified epithelium

stria- furrow, streak striationsof skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue

stroma spread out strome,the connective tissue framework of some organs

sub-beneath, under sublingual, beneath the tongue

sucr- sweet sucrose,table sugar

sudor- sweat sudoriferousglands, the sweat glands

super- above,upon superior, quality orstate of being above others or apart

supra-above, upon supracondylar, above a condyle

sym-, syn- together,with synapse, the region of communication be­tween two neurons

synerg- work together synergism

systol- contraction systole,contraction of the heart

tachy- rapid tachycardia,abnormally rapid heartbeat

tact-touch tactile sense

telo- the end telophase,the end of mitosis

tempi-, tempo- timetemporal summation ofnerve impulses

tens-stretched muscle tension

tertius third peroneus tertius, one of three peroneusmuscles

tetan- rigid, tense tetanusof muscles

therm- heat thermometer,an instrument used to measure heat

thromb- clot thrombocyte;thrombus

thyro- a shield thyroidgland

tissu- woven tissue

tono- tension tonicity;hypertonic

tox- poison antitoxic,effective against poison

trab- beam, timber trabeculae,spicules of bone in spongy bone tissue

trans- across,through transpleural, through the pleura

trapez- table trapezius,the four-sided muscle of the upper back

tri-three trifurcation, division into three branches

trop-turn, change tropic hormones, whose targets areendocrine glands

troph- nourish trophoblast,from which develops the fetal portion of the placenta

tuber- swelling tuberosity, a bump on a bone

tunic- covering tunica albuginea,the covering of the testis

tympan- drum tympanicmembrane, the eardrum

ultra- beyond ultraviolet radiation, beyond the band ofvisible light

vacc- cow vaccine

vagin- a sheath vagina

vagus wanderer the vagusnerve, which starts at the brain and trav­els into the abdominopeMccavity

valen- strength valenceshells of atoms

venter, ventr- hollow cavity, belly ventral (directional term); ventricle

ventus the wind pulmonaryventilation

vert- turn vertebralcolumn

vestibul- a porch vestibule,the anterior entryway to the mouth and nose

vibr- shake, quiver vibrissae,hairs of the nasal vestibule

villus shaggy hair microvilli,which have the appearance of hair in light microscopy

viscero- organ, viscera visceroinhibitory, inhibiting the movements of the viscera

viscos- sticky viscosity;resistance to flow

vita-life vitamin

vitre- glass vitreoushumor, the clear jelly of the eye

viv- live in vivo

vulv- a covering vulva,the female external genitalia

zyg- a yoke, twin zygote

Suffixes

-able able to, capable of viable, ability to live or exist

-ac referring to cardiac, referring to the heart

-algia pain in a certain part neuralgia, pain along the course of a nerve

-apsi juncturesynapse, where two neuronsconnect

-ary associatedwith, relating to coronary,associated with the heart

-asthen weakness myastheniagravis, a disease involving paralysis

-atomos indivisible anatomy, which involvesdissection

-bryo swollenembryo

-cide destroyor kill germicide, anagent that kills germs

-cipit head occipital

-clast break osteoclast,a cell that dissolves bone matrix

-crine separate endocrineorgans, which secrete hormones into the blood

-dips thirst, dry polydipsia, excessive thirst associated with diabetes

-ectomy cutting out, surgical removal appendectomy, cutting out of the appendix

-ell, -elle small organelle

-emia condition of the blood anemia, deficiency ofred blood cells

-esthesi sensation anesthesia,lack of sensation

-ferent carry efferentnerves, nerves carrying impulses away from the.CNS

-form, -forma shape cribriformplate of the ethmoid bone

-fuge drivingout vermifuge, a substance that expels worms of theintestine

-gen anagent that initiates pathogen,any agent that produces disease

-glea, -gliaglue neuroglia, the connective tissue of thenervous system

-gram data that are systematically recorded, arecord electrocardio­gram,a recording showing action of the heart

-graph an instrument used for recording data orwriting electrocar­diograph,an instrument used to make an electrocardiogram

-ia condition insomnia, condition of not being able tosleep

-iatrics medical specialty geriatrics, the branch of medicine dealing with disease associatedwith old age

-ism condition hyperthyroidism

-itis inflammationgastritis, inflammation ofthe stomach

-lemma sheath, husk sarcolemma, the plasma membrane of a mus­cle cell

-logy the study of pathology, the study of changes instructure and function brought on by disease

-lysis loosening or breaking down hydrolysis, chemical decomposi­tion of a compound into othercompounds as a result of taking up water

-malacia soft osteomalacia,a process leading to bone softening

-mania obsession, compulsion erotomania, exaggeration of the sex­ual passions

-nata birthprenatal development

-nom govern autonomic nervous system

-odyn paincoccygodynia, pain in the region of the coccyx

-oid hke, resembling cuboid, shaped as a cube

-oma tumorlymphoma, a tumor of thelymphatic tissues

-opia defectof the eye myopia,nearsightedness

-ory referringto, of auditory, referringto hearing

-pathy disease osteopathy,any disease of the bone

-phasia speech aphasia,lack of ability to speak

-phil, -philolike, love hydrophilic, water-attracting molecules

-phobia fear acrophobia, fear of heights

-phragm partition diaphragm, which separates thethoracic and ab­dominal cavities

-phylax guard, preserve anaphylaxis, prophylactic

-plas growneoplasia, an abnormal growth

-plasm form, shape cytoplasm

-plasty reconstruction of a part, plastic surgery rhinoplasty, recon­struction of the nose throughsurgery

-plegia paralysis paraplegia,paralysis of the lower half of the body or limbs

-rrhagia abnormal or excessive discharge metrorrhagia, uterine hemorrhage

-rrhea flow or discharge diarrhea, abnormal emptying of the bowels

-scope instrument used for examination stethoscope, instrument used to listen tosounds of parts of the body

-some body chromosome

-sorb suckin absorb

-stalsis compression peristalsis,muscular contractions that propel food along the digestive tract

-stasis arrest, fixation hemostasis, arrest of bleeding

-stitia come to stand interstitialfluid, between the cells

-stomy establishment of an artificial opening enterostomy, the for­mation of an artificial openinginto the intestine through the ab­dominal wall

-tegm coverintegument

-tomy tocut appendectomy, surgicalremoval of the appendix

-trud thrustprotrude, detrusor muscle

-ty conditionof, state immunity,condition of being resistant to in­fection or disease

-uria urinepolyuria, passage of anexcessive amount of urine

-zyme ferment enzyme

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