Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (2022)

Blog Featured

by Ken Miyamoto- updated on August 2, 2021

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (1)

What's the proper way to format a montage within a screenplay and how do you know when to —and when not to — write them?We're going to explore that question here for this installment of our ongoing Screenwriting Basics series.

Whether it's a Pretty Woman trying on luxury clothes or a Philadelphia boxer named Rocky training to go the distance, the montage sequence continues to be a cinematic staple.

The term "montage" is defined asthe process or technique of selecting, editing, and piecing together separate sections of film to form a continuous whole.

Within a screenplay, the montage is a compilation of short scenes or moments — usually with little to no dialogue — that are grouped together to convey a passage of time quickly while communicating necessary visuals and moments within that condensed timeline.

Those visuals and moments showcase character and story arcs, either in the progression of building to a particular arc point (Rocky running up the stairs, ready for the big fight) or merely showing multiple characters in multiple places reacting to something. Montages can even be used to sum up a character's experience in multiple or single locations by using visuals and moments that best communicate that experience.

There is no hard and fast rule on how these types of scenes are formatted within a screenplay beyond general guidelines and expectations. And those guidelines and expectations are simple — express what the reader should be seeing through their own cinematic mind's eye as quickly and simply as possible.

The montage is used to communicate a big chunk of story in a short span of time, with the goal of still being able to allow the reader and audience to experience the informational and emotional elements of that chunk of story. Or it is used to communicate multiple reactions or experiences of multiple characters in multiple locations at the same time.

It's not meant to be used as a cheat by any means. Some screenwriters think that montages allow them to throw in any information in quick fashion without having to craft full scenes around that information. That's not the point of the montage. The point is to offer the reader or audience a visual experience that summarizes a gap between two pivotal scenes or between two story acts.

So how do you format them?

(Video) Screenwriter Chris Ford on Free Screenwriting Software: WriterDuet

There are many examples of montage formats that have evolved over the years. The key is to keep the format as simple as possible.

Single Location Montage

A character or group of characters are in a single location, and you want or need to convey their passage of time there.

One of the best and most iconic examples is the shopping scene in Pretty Woman. Edward is taking Vivian shopping. The scene is meant to convey a fun moment of this call girl experiencing being pampered through trying on and buying luxury clothes that she could never have afforded. It is a moment that is the antithesis of an earlier scene where a luxury shopping store rejected her because of the way she was dressed.

While this montage scene wasn't in the original first drafts of the script, we did find a similar, yet more intimate, scene — not present in the final cut of the film — that captures the simple format of writing a single location montage.

Edward and Vivian are in the penthouse living room as Vivian tries on the many dresses she bought during her shopping spree. The display turns intimate as she begins to try on lingerie.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (2)

The montage ends as a new scene header for the scene takes them to the bedroom.

As you can see, the montage opens with a header that dictates what type of scene this is — MONTAGE. That header alone would have been enough, but the writer chose to be more specific by adding OF VIVIAN'S OUTFITS.

In certain montages, you want to be sure to communicate when the montage scene ends by simply writing a header in caps — END MONTAGE. However, in this case, the montage leads directly into another scene and location. When the new scene heading dictates a new location, it's implied that the montage is over.

Had the scene continued in the same location after Vivian tried on the outfits, the END MONTAGE heading would have been utilized and the scene description and dialogue could have gone on from there as usual.

Here's another example of a single location montage from the spec script The Purple Heart Battalion. The script tells the true story of the all-Japanese-American infantry during WWII that battled racism and prejudice while trying to prove themselves ready to fight for their country.

In this scene, the single location is a baseball field as Japanese-American soldiers play a game of baseball against a local white team. This example would be perfect for those writing the inevitable montage sequences found in sports movies.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (3)

It's simple and manages to capture story and character arcs as well. As you may notice, the formatting changes. It's an excellent example of clean and straightforward format, using what is similar to a bullet point or dash list system. This format is one of the more contemporary versions used in screenwriting today.

Writing a montage in your feature or pilot? Use our helpful eCourses to get it done faster.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (4)

Multiple Location Montage

The multiple location montage is often the most utilized within screenplays.

(Video) SPACE RACE 2021

The first — and most common — way is to continue using the MONTAGE and END MONTAGE (if applicable) headers followed by simple lines of scene description for each visual or moment (and variances thereof).

The science fiction blockbuster Armageddon has many montage sequences.

The training sequence where the drilling crew finally succeeds in their tests is simple and straightforward.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (5)

As you can see, the writer embraces the quick and simple mantra — literally.

The writer also uses a different variation by utilizing the SCENE HEADING to dictate that the scene is a montage.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (6)

This is a perfect example of a multi-location montage that focuses on specific imagery to convey reactions from multiple characters. The script uses the scene heading instead of a header in caps within the scene description.

Within the same script, the writer offers a more extensive, but still simple, montage.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (7)

The format change with this example uses the aforementioned dash list system, although in your spec scripts you don't need to mention quick cuts because each line of scene description implies a cut to another moment.

A cleaner example of this list system can be found in the specThe Purple Heart Battalionas well.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (8)

Now, there's another way to circumvent adding any new formatting elements — headers in caps and special scene headings — to create a montage sequence. And that's by simply sticking with general screenwriting format — INT./EXT. LOCATION - DAY/NIGHT.

In this version, each visual or moment of a montage is represented usinga series of short scenes — each having just a scene heading (slugline) and a sentence or two of description. No mention of montage at all. The reader will usually be able to see and understand that there’s a montage occurring because of the briefness of scene description for each short scene.

In Rocky, we have a good example of this type of format showcasing multiple locations within the montage.

(Video) Screenwriting vs. Fiction Writing: The difference between screenwriting and fiction writing

Here is how the original Rockytraining montage was formatted in an early draft of the script.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (9)

Short simple scenes of Rocky training are used, all of which build to the final, now iconic, image of him running up the art museum stairs. The dated script uses STILL LATER instead of DAY or NIGHT to convey that the action is taking place in the same location but at different times.

The best example using this simple screenwriting format to convey a montage can be found in arguably the greatest — and most touching — montage sequence ever to grace the screen, found in Pixar's Up.

The film brilliantly portrays the relationship of Carl and Ellie from playful beginning to sad ending. The format is simple and straightforward, not requiring any colons, headers, or list systems.

Read the script's version and then watch the scene in its entirety.

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (10)

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (11)

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (12)

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (13)

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (14)

Screenwriting Basics: How to Write an Effective Montage - ScreenCraft (15)

As you can see, there are a few options to consider as you write and format your montage scenes within your script.

Does your montage scene take place in a single location?

(Video) The Importance Of Structuring Your Film, and Using The 3 Act Structure in Modern Cinema

Does your montage scene take place in multiple locations?

Do you want to utilize headers that tell the reader where the montage begins and ends or do you want to imply it using a sequence of short scenes with short scene description?

The key is to convey those visuals and moments in the most simple and effective way so that the reader can quickly envision them as they move along with the story.

For more writing resources, sign up for the ScreenCraft's Screenwriting Newsletter Here!

Ken Miyamoto has worked in the film industry for nearly two decades, most notably as a studio liaison for Sony Studios and then as a script reader and story analyst for Sony Pictures.

He has many studio meetings under his belt as a produced screenwriter, meeting with the likes of Sony, Dreamworks, Universal, Disney, Warner Brothers, as well as many production and management companies. He has had a previous development deal with Lionsgate, as well as multiple writing assignments, including the produced miniseriesBlackout, starring Anne Heche, Sean Patrick Flanery, Billy Zane, James Brolin, Haylie Duff, Brian Bloom, Eric La Salle, and Bruce Boxleitner. Follow Ken on Twitter@KenMovies

For all the latestScreenCraft news and updates, follow usonTwitter,Facebook, andInstagram.

Tags

film, film industry, hollywood, ken miyamoto, montage, montage scenes, montage sequence, montages, movies, Pixar, Rocky, screenplays, screenwriters, screenwriting, screenwriting advice, screenwriting basics, Scripts, up movie, Writers, writing, writing tips

Get Our Screenwriting Newsletter!

Get weekly writing inspiration delivered to your inbox - including industry news, popular articles, and more!

(Video) Script Writing and Story board - How to Format Screen Play

Facebook Comments

FAQs

How do you write an effective montage? ›

A simple way to write a montage is to break the scenes of your montage up into a bullet-point style list (with two dashes in front of each scene). The dashes make your montage especially easy to read and understand the passage of time.

How do you write a montage sequence in a screenplay? ›

There is no hard and fast rule for how to format montages in screenplays. As with all formatting, the goal is to express what's happening on screen as clearly and simply as possible, without breaking up the flow of the screenplay or taking your reader out of the script.

What are the 5 basic elements of a screenplay? ›

The 5 elements that make up a great story

For this introduction, we're going to call them character, want and need, plot, structure, and conflict and resolution.

What are the five methods of montage? ›

Eisenstein envisioned and implemented five methods of montage into his films: metric, rhythmic, tonal, overtonal and intellectual.

What makes a great montage? ›

The duration of a montage is typically what makes it so powerful. They're short and sweet (or not-so-sweet, like in Groundhog Day or The Dark Knight), and they usually last about as long as the song that's playing. Often, the songs are edited to be shorter because even a full three-minute montage can be too much.

How do you make a montage step by step? ›

Making Memorable Video Montages for Your Audience
  1. Step 1: Open the Slideshow Creator.
  2. Step 2: Select Your Photos.
  3. Step 3: Adjust Your Photos.
  4. Step 4: Set Photo Length.
  5. Step 5: Set Transition Style.
  6. Step 6: Add More Photos.
  7. Step 7: Re-Edit the Slideshow.
  8. Step 8: Add Music, Sound and Other Effects.

What is the basic principle of montage in film? ›

Montages enable filmmakers to communicate a large amount of information to an audience over a shorter span of time by juxtaposing different shots, compressing time through editing, or intertwining multiple storylines of a narrative. The word “montage” derives from French — meaning “assembly” or “editing.”

How many montages is too many? ›

How Many Montages are too Many? The answer to this question is simple you have written to many montages in the screenplay when your asking this question. But as a general rule of thumb if your writing more than one it's too many. When a magician uses his trick to many times on the same person it loses its flare.

What are the 8 core elements of film? ›

What are the key elements involved:
  • Film Type.
  • Shots.
  • Camera Angles.
  • Lighting.
  • Color.
  • Sound or Audio.
  • Editing.
  • Mise-en-Scene.
3 Mar 2021

What are the 4 things that a script must have? ›

There are only four elements you can use to tell a screen story: images, action, sound effects, and dialogue.

What should you not do in a screenplay? ›

Though writing good dialogue isn't exactly teachable, there are some simple mistakes to avoid when your characters speak. Pointless dialogue.
...
Formatting Errors:
  1. Overusing transitions. ...
  2. Putting action in parentheticals. ...
  3. Unfilmable things. ...
  4. Underusing sluglines. ...
  5. Inconsistent character names.

What is an example of montage? ›

A montage sequence is a type of film editing that condenses time. The most common use for this technique is to show sequences of events from the past, present, or future. A recent example in a film would be “Birdman,” which chronicles the life span of one character through a series of short clips and brief scenes.

Can a montage have dialogue? ›

Montage Definition. A montage is a collection of short scenes or brief moments that are lumped together to quickly show a passage of time. There's usually no, or very little dialogue in a montage. A montage can be used to condense time and tell us a big part of a story in a brief time frame.

What is a montage structure? ›

It's a technique that involves using separate elements (pictures, words, music, etc.) to create a new whole. In filmmaking, the montage effect is used to condense space and time so that information can be delivered in a more efficient way.

What are the 5 editing style options? ›

"The foundation of film art is editing." Pudovkin's 5 editing techniques are contrast, parallelism, symbolism, simultaneity, and leitmotif. Each of these techniques is in every editor's arsenal and used in virtually every film made around the world.

Which technique is related to montage? ›

Montage is a technique of film editing that combines a series of short shots or clips into one sequence, often set to music. The word montage is French for “assembly” or “editing.”

What is Eisenstein's theory of montage? ›

Though this theory was explored by many Soviet filmmakers, the most widely accepted is Sergei Eisenstein's view that “montage is an idea that arises from the collision of independent shots” wherein “ each sequential element is perceived not next to the other, but on top of the other.”

Which is the best montage? ›

5 of the Best Montages of all Time
  • Married Life Story - UP (2009)
  • Detention Dance - The Breakfast Club (1985)
  • The Baptism Murders - The Godfather (1972)
  • Even Rocky had a Montage - Team America: World Police (2004)
  • If I Fight, You Fight - Creed (2015)

How long is a montage? ›

# A Montage is a series of video messages sent privately from a bunch of people who really care about you, and combined into one surprise, video gift. Most Montages are 10-30 minutes long. The longest Montage ever was 1 hour and 12 minutes long, and had videos from over 70 people!

Whats the difference between a montage and a collage? ›

A montage is more formal than a collage and is usually based on a theme. It is also used to describe experimentation in photography and film, in particular the works of Man Ray and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy who made a series of short movies and photographic montages in the 1930s.

How do I make a opening montage? ›

How to make video intro for Youtube
  1. Open Canva. Open up Canva and search for "YouTube Intro" to kickstart your design. ...
  2. Find the right template. Canva's library has video intro templates for every theme. ...
  3. Discover features. ...
  4. Customize your design. ...
  5. Upload and share.

How many photos is a 10 minute montage? ›

You'll likely have about 20 pictures per minute of the montage, so 200 photos = 10-minute montage. If you have more than 200 photos or lots of video clips, be ruthless!

How long does it take to make a montage? ›

A typical montage takes 5-7 days to produce.

What is the 180 rule in film? ›

The 180-degree rule states that two characters (or more) in a scene should always have the same left/right relationship with each other. The rule dictates that you draw an imaginary line between these two characters (or subjects) and try to keep your camera(s) on the same side of this 180-degree line.

What are Eisenstein's five methods of montage? ›

According to prominent Soviet director Sergei Eisenstein, there are five different types within Soviet Montage Theory: Metric, Rhythmic, Tonal, Overtonal and Intellectual.

Can the 180-degree rule be broken? ›

Breaking the 180-degree rule is known as a "reverse cut.” The jarring nature of a reverse cut may disorient the viewer, so make sure to use reverse cuts sparingly and to communicate a specific message.

What makes a bad script? ›

Bad writing usually involves endless exposition dumps within dialogue — characters that are either saying what they already know for the benefit of the audience or reader alone or telling us stories of actions that have happened off screen or away from the story being told. Readers and the audience are smart.

How do I know if my script is good? ›

7 Ways To Check If Your Script is Done
  1. Negotiable Characters. Make a list of all your characters. ...
  2. Intimate Relationship. How well do you know your script? ...
  3. Actually Rewritten. I'm surprised by how many writers have never retyped their script. ...
  4. People Give Up. ...
  5. All Words Locked. ...
  6. Out Loud. ...
  7. Your Best All Time.
5 Dec 2019

How do I know if my script is bad? ›

13 Things Bad Screenwriters Commonly Do
  1. Wrong format slug lines (scene descriptions) ...
  2. Overly detailed character description. ...
  3. Too much or little detail in narrative. ...
  4. Narrative that won't read on film. ...
  5. Back-to-back scenes in same location. ...
  6. Nick-of-time arrivals (deus ex machina or "God from the machine") ...
  7. Clichéd dialogue.
24 Nov 2020

What are the three pillars of film? ›

A film is a combination of 3 central pillars, each of which is equal to the other. If just one of these fails, the whole movie will fail. Those 3 pillars are: story, acting & image.

What are the 5 principles of film form? ›

Terms in this set (5)
  • Function. Story lines or characters that serve a function effect the outcome of the whole movie.
  • Similarity and Repition. Are there repeated scenes or lines that reinforce the meaning of the film?
  • Difference and Variation. ...
  • Development. ...
  • Unity and Disunity.

What are the 3 fundamental principles of film form? ›

The three fundamental principles of film form are: Movies depend on light, provide an illusion of movement, and manipulate space and time in unique ways.

What is the most difficult part of script writing? ›

2) Finding the right title is one of the most difficult aspects of any kind of writing.

What are the 8 elements of script formatting? ›

The elements for a script are:
  • Scene Heading.
  • Action.
  • Character Name.
  • Dialogue.
  • Parenthetical.
  • Extensions.
  • Transition.
  • Shot.

What are the six elements of a script? ›

The 6 Aristotelean elements are plot, character, thought, diction, spectacle, and song.

Why do most screenwriters fail? ›

So according to Chamberlain, 99% of screenwriters fail to tell a story; they just present a situation. In layman's terms, it means that while you have scenes with interesting characters and dialogue, they fail to fit together the way a story should. Stories need to be linked in a "because" chain of reactions.

What skills should a screenwriter have? ›

You'll need:
  • knowledge of English language.
  • excellent written communication skills.
  • persistence and determination.
  • excellent verbal communication skills.
  • the ability to use your initiative.
  • the ability to come up with new ways of doing things.
  • ambition and a desire to succeed.
  • knowledge of media production and communication.

What makes a strong screenplay? ›

Strong Openings Means Strong Screenplays

Set the time and pace, and sum up the story through a clear and strong statement of theme. The opening page of an action movie might have three or four short scenes, but a romantic comedy might have an opening scene lasting several pages.

Can a montage be a short film? ›

Montages are great for shorts as long as they are necessary. Sometimes they can be misused like preludes in books, given information that isnt necessary for the story.

How do you write a montage in a short story? ›

How to Write a Montage
  1. A fast pace. Show a single image quickly and then move on. ...
  2. Interesting or exciting imagery. Since the images will be moving past in quick succession, it's important that each one somehow grabs the reader's or viewer's attention.
  3. Original imagery.

What is a creative montage? ›

Montage is a creative way of editing different shots and images together to make a sequence. With the help of montage, large information can be conveyed in a short period. Montages are not just some sort of photo collages or some fancy slideshows!

How do you start and end a montage? ›

In certain montages, you want to be sure to communicate when the montage scene ends by simply writing a header in caps — END MONTAGE. However, in this case, the montage leads directly into another scene and location. When the new scene heading dictates a new location, it's implied that the montage is over.

What does cont'd mean in a script? ›

Screenwriters include “cont'd” (short for “continued”) in parentheticals next to a character's name in dialogue to indicate that their speech continues after an action or another character's words.

How do you write a scene with multiple locations? ›

You write a scene with multiple locations by first establishing your first, second, or even third location with a proper scene heading. Then, when you return to the first location, you write just the location name in all caps.

What are the elements of a montage? ›

A montage should be the cherry on top of a story that is already good, unique, and understandable. By using only four key elements—cross cuts, pacing, music, and voiceover—your next montage can be just as amazing as Nolan's montages.

What 5 linked things could you use to brainstorm a montage essay? ›

STEP 1: Pick five linked things in your life.

Five families you've learned from. Five photographs you took. Five decisions you've made. Five things you've collected.

› 2015/12 › 10-different-kinds-... ›

There's nothing quite like a montage. Think about it -- montages are wholly cinematic, born entirely from the womb of editing, and are able to elicit emotio...
Struggling to analyse films? In this article, we'll show you the different types of montages and their effects, how to analyse montage and go through an exa...
Montages enable filmmakers to communicate a large amount of information to an audience over a shorter span of time by juxtaposing different shots, compressing t...

What makes a good montage in film? ›

How to Create a Great Cinematic Montage - YouTube

How do you make a montage step by step? ›

Making Memorable Video Montages for Your Audience
  1. Step 1: Open the Slideshow Creator.
  2. Step 2: Select Your Photos.
  3. Step 3: Adjust Your Photos.
  4. Step 4: Set Photo Length.
  5. Step 5: Set Transition Style.
  6. Step 6: Add More Photos.
  7. Step 7: Re-Edit the Slideshow.
  8. Step 8: Add Music, Sound and Other Effects.

What is an example of a montage? ›

A montage sequence is a type of film editing that condenses time. The most common use for this technique is to show sequences of events from the past, present, or future. A recent example in a film would be “Birdman,” which chronicles the life span of one character through a series of short clips and brief scenes.

How do you make a montage? ›

How to make a video montage online - FAST & EASY - YouTube

What is the 180 rule in film? ›

The 180-degree rule states that two characters (or more) in a scene should always have the same left/right relationship with each other. The rule dictates that you draw an imaginary line between these two characters (or subjects) and try to keep your camera(s) on the same side of this 180-degree line.

Which is the best montage? ›

5 of the Best Montages of all Time
  • Married Life Story - UP (2009)
  • Detention Dance - The Breakfast Club (1985)
  • The Baptism Murders - The Godfather (1972)
  • Even Rocky had a Montage - Team America: World Police (2004)
  • If I Fight, You Fight - Creed (2015)

How many montages is too many? ›

How Many Montages are too Many? The answer to this question is simple you have written to many montages in the screenplay when your asking this question. But as a general rule of thumb if your writing more than one it's too many. When a magician uses his trick to many times on the same person it loses its flare.

How do I make a opening montage? ›

How to make video intro for Youtube
  1. Open Canva. Open up Canva and search for "YouTube Intro" to kickstart your design. ...
  2. Find the right template. Canva's library has video intro templates for every theme. ...
  3. Discover features. ...
  4. Customize your design. ...
  5. Upload and share.

How many photos is a 10 minute montage? ›

You'll likely have about 20 pictures per minute of the montage, so 200 photos = 10-minute montage. If you have more than 200 photos or lots of video clips, be ruthless!

How long does it take to make a montage? ›

A typical montage takes 5-7 days to produce.

Can a montage have dialogue? ›

Montage Definition. A montage is a collection of short scenes or brief moments that are lumped together to quickly show a passage of time. There's usually no, or very little dialogue in a montage. A montage can be used to condense time and tell us a big part of a story in a brief time frame.

What does a montage look like? ›

A montage can be a juxtaposition of two shots, but commonly refers to the juxtaposition of multiple shots to depict an event often in stretched or condensed time." Juxtaposition happens within montages a lot. Often, we see several different things going on at once.

Can a montage be a short film? ›

Montages are great for shorts as long as they are necessary. Sometimes they can be misused like preludes in books, given information that isnt necessary for the story.

How long should each clip be in a montage? ›

You don't want to make it too long (less than 30 seconds) or too short (more than five minutes). The best length for a montage tends to be around 90 seconds to two minutes in length.

What is another word for montage? ›

What is another word for montage?
assortmentjumble
patchworkpotpourri
varietycollage
farragohash
medleymosaic
151 more rows

Which software is best for montage editing? ›

OUR TOP TESTED PRODUCTS
  • Adobe Premiere Pro. Best for Professional Video Editing. ...
  • Apple Final Cut Pro. Best for Professional Editing on Macs. ...
  • Apple iMovie (for Mac OS X) Best for Easy Editing on Macs. ...
  • CyberLink PowerDirector. ...
  • Corel VideoStudio Ultimate. ...
  • DaVinci Resolve. ...
  • Movavi Video Editor. ...
  • Pinnacle Studio Ultimate.

Videos

1. HMS Filmmakers Project 2020 Workshop _ Writing Short Film Scripts with instructor Randee Ramsey
(Houston MediaSource)
2. 12 Character Archetypes Every Actor Should Know
(Augmented Actor)
3. How to Make a Blockbuster Movie
(PolyMatter)
4. Will Linn Monomyth Initiation
(The Mythology Channel)

Top Articles

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Horacio Brakus JD

Last Updated: 12/06/2022

Views: 6141

Rating: 4 / 5 (71 voted)

Reviews: 86% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Horacio Brakus JD

Birthday: 1999-08-21

Address: Apt. 524 43384 Minnie Prairie, South Edda, MA 62804

Phone: +5931039998219

Job: Sales Strategist

Hobby: Sculling, Kitesurfing, Orienteering, Painting, Computer programming, Creative writing, Scuba diving

Introduction: My name is Horacio Brakus JD, I am a lively, splendid, jolly, vivacious, vast, cheerful, agreeable person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.