Implementing Optimal Team-Based Care to Reduce Clinician Burnout - National Academy of Medicine (2022)

By Cynthia D. Smith, Celynne Balatbat, Susan Corbridge, Anna Legreid Dopp, Jessica Fried, Ron Harter, Seth Landefeld, Christina Y. Martin, Frank Opelka, Lew Sandy, Luke Sato, and Christine Sinsky

September 17, 2018 | Discussion Paper

Introduction

Team-based health care has been linked to improved patient outcomes and may also be a means to improve clinician well-being [1]. The increasingly fragmented and complex health care landscape adds urgency to the need to foster effective team-based care to improve both the patient and team’s experience of care delivery. This paper describes key features of successful health care teams, reviews existing evidence that links high-functioning teams to increased clinician well-being, and recommends strategies to overcome key environmental and organizational barriers to optimal team-based care in order to promote clinician and patient well-being.

What Is a Health Care Team?

We begin by asking a simple question: what is a health care team? Health care teams have been defined in previous literature as two or more health care professionals who work collaboratively with patients and their caregivers to accomplish shared goals [2,3]. However, a health care team may involve a wide range of team members in various settings. Examples include a small, office-based team consisting of a primary care clinician with one or two medical assistants or a hospital-based trauma team with a dozen members. In addition to patients and their support groups, potential members include physicians, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, trainees, and others identified as persons necessary to help achieve shared goals. The fundamental concept is that a team is a group of individuals who coordinate their actions for a common purpose, which in health care is the prevention or treatment of disease and the promotion of health. A team-based model of care strives to meet patient needs and preferences by actively engaging patients as full participants in their care, while encouraging all health care professionals to function to the full extent of their education, certification, and experience [4].

Successful teamwork has four key characteristics: (1) a clear and compelling purpose or goal, (2) an enabling social structure that facilitates teamwork, (3) a supportive organizational context, and (4) expert teamwork coaching [5]. Effective teamwork depends on (1) the team members’ psychological safety, defined as their ability to trust one another and feel safe enough within the team to admit a mistake, ask a question, offer new data, or try a new skill without fear of embarrassment or punishment, and (2) allows team members to learn, teach, communicate, reason, think together, and achieve shared goals, irrespective of their individual positions or status outside the team [6].

There is growing recognition of the importance of team-based care in today’s changing and increasingly complex health care delivery system. In particular, the shift from fee-for-service (FFS) payment to value-based payment models (which reward providers for the quality of care provided) highlights the importance of a team approach to improve the health of individuals and populations, and to improve the safety, quality, and efficiency of health care delivery [4]. Many emerging value-based payment models facilitate closer integration and alignment of health care team members through coordinated payments and accountable care. Moreover, a team-based approach is especially important when caring for patients with complex care needs. To understand the critical need for team-based care, consider that a typical Medicare beneficiary visits two primary care clinicians and five secondary (i.e., subspecialty) care clinicians per year [3], as well as health care professionals who provide diagnostic, pharmacy, and other services. This number is several times larger for people with multiple chronic conditions. To manage the large amounts of information and multiple handoffs inherent in caring for complex patients, there is a need for seamless communication and transitions among health care professionals (within a team or among teams) [4].

The Effects of Health Care Teams on Patients and Team Members

To be effective, teamwork must enhance “the capability of members to work together interdependently in the future” and must contribute “to the growth and personal well-being of team members” [7]. In this sense, then, a health care team will achieve both clinical goals for patients and personal goals for team members when it functions well.

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According to the Agency for Healthcare Research in Quality (AHRQ), “the primary goal of medical teamwork is to optimize the timely and effective use of information, skills, and resources by teams of health care professionals for the purpose of enhancing the quality and safety of patient care” [8]. Despite some variation in the literature, there is strong evidence in support of team-based care. The evidence that connects optimal teamwork and improved patient outcomes is promising and includes studies in various settings, including ambulatory, emergency department, nursing home, and hospital-based care (intensive care units (ICUs), wards, and operating rooms) [9,10,11]. For example, a 2015 review of 52 studies of team-based care for hypertension found that teams achieved controlled blood pressure in 12 percent more patients than routine care did [12]. Another study found that a novel team-based model that includes new standard work (e.g., proactive patient outreach, pre-visit schedule grooming, depression screening, care planning, and health coaching) improved patients’ self-management of hypertension and diabetes. In particular, patients experienced a decline in diastolic blood pressure and improved glycemic control over the first sixmonths [13]. A multidisciplinary team-based care approach has also been shown to improve survival outcomes in high-risk neuroblastoma patients [14].

There is also evidence that multidisciplinary team-based care is associated with better performance on traditional measures of health care quality, such as emergency department utilization and hospital readmissions. In addition, several studies have concluded that optimizing team-based care is a cost-effective intervention [15,16]. A literature review examined teamwork in operating rooms, ICUs, emergency medicine, and trauma/resuscitation teams, focusing on quality and patient safety. The review revealed that teamwork played an important role in preventing adverse events, and it showed a relationship between staff perception of teamwork and attitudes about the importance of quality and patient safety [17]. One study found that multidisciplinary team-based care for patients with lung cancer was associated with significantly fewer emergency department visits [18]. Additionally, a care model that works in collaboration with primary care clinicians and patient-centered medical homes to provide home-based geriatric care management was associated with 7.1 percent fewer emergency department visits, 14.8 percent fewer 30-day readmissions, 37.9 percent fewer hospital admissions, and 28.5 percent fewer total bed days of care, saving an estimated $200,000 per year after accounting for program costs [19]. Primary care teams that exhibit a higher density of daily interaction and lower centralization were associated with better clinical outcomes and lower medical costs for patients with cardiovascular disease [20].

However, the relationship between high-quality, team-based health care and clinician burnout is less well defined in the literature; few studies have investigated the interplay among teamwork, patient outcomes, and clinician well-being [1,21]. Most of the available evidence is from cross-sectional, single-institutional, or brief observational studies that make causality difficult to ascertain.

Nevertheless, the existing evidence demonstrates a generally positive association between team-based care and clinician well-being. A methodologically sound, longitudinal study of interprofessional teams in the ICU setting found a connection between measures of high-quality teamwork and measures of clinician well-being and resilience. The study concluded that addressing clinician emotional exhaustion is an important prerequisite to effective team-based care and patient safety [1]. Another study explored the relationship among team structure, team culture, and emotional exhaustion in interprofessional teams and found that team culture was more predictive of clinician emotional exhaustion than team structure [22]. Similarly, another study found that perceptions of better team culture, alone and in combination with tight team structure, were associated with lower clinician exhaustion [23]. A small study of 106 Canadian air medical personnel found that both perceived control over one’s job and team efficacy buffered some of the workplace stressors identified by the researchers, including risk perception, worries over medical hassles, and barriers to patient care [24]. A larger survey-based study of over 500 physicians in Taiwan supported the hypothesis that a positive team climate may mitigate physician burnout [25]. Teamwork has been found to partially mitigate the relationship between work demands and burnout and fully mitigate the job engagement–job satisfaction relationship in a large study using a set of valid survey instruments and regression models [26]. The study found that higher work demands or the other physical, psychological, social, or organizational factors that require prolonged physical and/or psychological efforts from workers predicted higher burnout levels. However, teamwork was related to lower levels of burnout. Additionally, higher levels of job engagement were associated with higher levels of teamwork, which, in turn, were associated with increased job satisfaction [26]. An interesting survey-based study comparing experiences of health care teams in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom found that team structure and job design contributed to employee well-being and that culture had a moderating effect on this impact [27]. A cross-sectional study of 12 primary care sites in various stages of transformation to a patient-centered medical home found a strong association between effective leadership, care team behaviors and perceptions (huddles, weekly meetings), and job satisfaction [28].

These studies indicate that optimizing team-based care is one potential lever to help solve the complex problem of decreased clinician well-being. Indeed, achieving effective teamwork is particularly important because teamwork has the potential to function as a demand or a resource: “Job demands deplete the individual’s energy and eventually decrease occupational well-being. Job resources, on the other hand, help employees attain goals, increase occupational well-being or reduce the strain caused by job demands” [1]. In other words, ineffective teamwork may be demanding for its members, leading to a higher workload and decreasing well-being. In contrast, if teamwork quality is high, teamwork may act as a resource, supporting clinicians in providing safe patient care and increasing their overall well-being [1].

To illustrate how teamwork may act as a resource, it is useful to examine the components and qualities that characterize high-performing teams. Table 1 outlines the principles of high-performing teams [3] and their potential association with aspects of clinician well-being.

Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between team-based care and clinician well-being. Additionally, it is important to note that optimizing team-based care is by no means a panacea and may require a baseline level of clinician well-being and a positive team culture to be most effective. A systematic review examining the association among teamwork, clinician well-being, and patient safety in hospital settings, identified several conceptual and methodological limitations of the current research [1]. The authors noted that “the main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. A holistic approach is needed that takes into account the complexity of teams in terms of team structure and different teamwork processes in healthcare organizations, especially in survey studies: for instance, in addition to focusing on the individual professions within the team, the entire multiprofessional team should be included” [1].

Drawing from psychological theory and their findings, Welp and Manser developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked (see Figure 1) [1]. Although this framework applies only to hospital settings, it may provide a useful starting point for the development of frameworks in other settings.

Figure 1 | Integrative Framework of Teamwork, Clinician Occupational Well-Being, and Patient Safety in Hospital Settings | Source: Welp and Manser, “Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety—development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review,” BMC Health Services Research. NOTES: Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Successful Models of High-Functioning and Effective Team-Based Care

The absence of robust evidence supporting a causal relationship between optimal team-based care and improved clinician well-being should not stall efforts to advance team-based health care. A wide range of successful models of high-functioning and effective team-based care have been demonstrated, and they may provide important lessons learned and principles to inform the development of future teams [29,30,31]. For example, in Federally Qualified Health Centers, patient-centered medical home implementation has been shown to lead to improvement in patient experience [32].

The development, implementation, and maintenance of health care teams that can improve patient outcomes and clinician well-being are complex endeavors and their manifestation will vary among different health care settings. Despite the heterogeneity of existing health care teams, all require some degree of ongoing investment of time and resources to achieve their potential.

There is a substantial body of literature establishing the science of teamwork and outlining strategies to improve teamwork, such as team-based training practices [33,34]. Furthermore, programs such as the Department of Defense and AHRQ’s Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (https://www.ahrq.gov/teamstepps/index.html) have been used to integrate teamwork into practice.

This discussion paper does not seek to provide a comprehensive overview of strategies and resources to inform the development of successful teams. Instead, the authors discuss key environmental and organizational barriers to optimal team-based care within the context of a larger health system. The following sections discuss key components of the system that may impede team-based care and proposed solutions to address such barriers.

Digital Barriers and Solutions

The digital health environment, particularly electronic health records (EHRs), is a barrier to team-based care. Although EHRs have important advantages in terms of improving continuous access to legible clinical information, they are not optimally designed to support clinical care. EHRs have been designed to meet outdated documentation guidelines for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) billing that were established in the paper medical record era [35]. If used effectively, the EHR can facilitate team-based care and improve patient outcomes [32]. Chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, have been identified as a unique area where EHRs can facilitate high-quality team-based care [36].

EHR platforms focus more on a single contributor to the notes than on multiple contributors [37]. The entire care team lacks adequate access to perform simple tasks, such as medication reconciliation, that would inform all the clinicians using the platform. Many important fields essential for care management, care gap analysis for prevention, and clinical care maintenance are simply not readily available.

Current EHRs do not facilitate exchange of data about a patient among clinicians in different health systems. For example, EHRs do not hold nationally standardized data and metadata, thus limiting data exchanges in a format that would allow for different EHR systems to machine-read and use the information such that clinicians could safely track patients under their care. These messaging functions are important aspects of digital health information functionality and are essential for optimal care.

In addition, patients have a limited view of their digital health information and cannot easily communicate with their care team. Patient portals are not easily navigated and shared, except to accomplish the most basic aspects of medication refills or to request an appointment [38]. The potential for a unified and seamless EHR system goes unrecognized, and this loss causes frustration for patients and the entire care team.

Regulatory changes are needed to leverage the full potential of digital health information. Those regulatory changes exist in several layers.

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  1. Regulatory burdens within the EHR—such as excessive signature requirements or mandates that certain documentation tasks be performed only by physicians—should be examined and clarified.
  2. Promotion of the exchange of information between EHRs needs to be accelerated through regulatory requirements.
  3. Interoperability should include more than EHRs. Data liquidity in a digital health information environment must flow to the patient’s consolidated medical record in a patient cloud, into registries, and into performance measurement tools and software.
  4. To facilitate a learning health system, interoperability should promote deep learning, advances in predictive analytics, and the use of artificial intelligence to support patient care.

Changes in federal regulations should support the evolution of the digital health information environment, as illustrated by the following examples:

  • CMS could modernize the documentation guidelines requirement and remove unnecessary redundancies to make clinical teams more efficient and effective. This will require an early phase to reduce the documentation burden and subsequent phases to build documentation into the clinical workflow for that patient. With these changes, all participants in the care delivery system, including the patient, could contribute documentation to the History of Present Illness, History, and Physical fields for which the key clinician is accountable.
  • CMS, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC), AHRQ, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (NCI) could work with Health Level Seven International, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Teams, Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes, RxNorm, and others to create interoperability standards and Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources profiles, and to expedite data liquidity and real-time information sharing for geographically remote teams.
  • AHRQ, NIH/NCI, and National Library of Medicine could establish the digital foundational elements of a learning health system and evidence-based medicine to promote readily available clinical workflows to optimize team function in EHRs at the point of care in real time.
  • ONC and CMS could make prescribed medication selection, alternatives, and pricing transparently available to clinical teams at the point of care as a regulatory EHR requirement.

Workforce Barriers and Solutions

In addition to the digital health barriers mentioned above, there are many issues related to the workforce itself that can impede and/or facilitate team-based care. These issues range from the training and mindset of health care team members to team organization and leadership. They also include larger contextual issues related to resources and staffing patterns. Despite the evidence that team-based care can improve outcomes and mitigate burnout—and despite the availability of material resources such as implementation guides for team-based care—barriers continue to exist. The lack of human resources is one fundamental barrier. A health care system or practice may seek to move to team-based care but cannot find the resources to augment the existing clinical staff with medical assistants, documentation assistants, or registered nurses (RNs). Another barrier is mindset. What constitutes “our team” and who is on it? Some health care professionals may carry a somewhat narrow and inflexible mindset (e.g., “only the people who work for me and/or directly around me are on my team”). Others may have a more wide-ranging, flexible, and adaptable perspective (e.g., “anyone who supports efforts to care for this patient is part of ‘our team’; decisions will be made based on the information and concerns provided by everyone on the team, including the patient”). These perspectives can manifest in issues such as whether a radiologist or pharmacist is part of the team, or how to coordinate both care and accountability for medically and/or socially complex patients. It should be noted that leading teams is a complex undertaking, especially when conflicts arise or unexpected challenges require changes to care plans.

Despite these barriers, promising solutions can promote team-based care. Process improvement methods such as Lean Six Sigma and others can be used to analyze the current state of operations and identify waste—in every system, there are such opportunities to identify and redeploy resources to promote team-based care. Team members can be trained in new skills—e.g., training medical assistants in basic health coaching and information management—that can add capacity to the existing team. Adding team members such as RNs can enhance the effectiveness of care and improve distribution of work. Addressing the “hidden curriculum,” practices that are not explicitly taught but tacitly followed, that may influence physicians and nurses to work in specialty/hospital–based practice versus ambulatory/primary care–based practice can promote high-quality and professionally satisfying practice in ambulatory care. Mindset and leadership issues can be addressed by adopting curricula and best practices from industries outside of health care. The field of aviation, the military, and the corporate sector all have promising practices that can be implemented in health care. For all health professionals, exposure to the theory and practice of team-based care should be part of both preclinical and clinical education, leveraging the growing body of knowledge and practical experience with Interprofessional Education/Interprofessional Practice [39,40]. For example, the 2016 update of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education standards lists demonstrated competence in interprofessional team dynamics, including articulating the values and ethics that underpin interprofessional practice, engaging in effective interprofessional communication—e.g., conflict resolution and documentation skills—and honoring interprofessional roles and responsibilities [41]. Ongoing professional development and team coaching should be provided for all team members to sustain long-term high performance.

Payment Barriers and Solutions

The clinical care model, business operations, and fiscal models are important considerations for the implementation of team-based care.

There is widespread agreement that the current health care payment system has serious weaknesses, which may serve as barriers to team-based care [42]. For example, FFS continues to be the predominant payment method. In most FFS systems, there is no explicit payment to reimburse clinicians and other health care team members for their time and effort to coordinate services. For example, clinicians are often not paid for time spent discussing how to coordinate services for individual patients, and clinicians who play the role of a team leader are not compensated for their time involved in performing team leader duties [42]. Although the addition of team-based care codes, such as Medicare’s chronic care management code, are promising exceptions to the current FFS system, their impact has been limited by bureaucratic requirements and lack of utilization among primary care practices [43].

In recent years, the broader health care environment has increasingly emphasized a shift toward value. Notably, the passage of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 created the Quality Payment Program, which shifts Medicare payment toward rewarding value over volume [44,45]. As a result, accountable care organizations (ACOs) and other alternative payment models will likely become prevalent modes of care delivery [46]. In light of these trends, it is in the interest of health care systems to embrace the shift to value now and not wait until it is the predominant mode of reimbursement.

Fortunately, the implementation of team-based care closely aligns with this shift. Team-based care has the ability to more effectively work toward the Quadruple Aim of (1) improving individuals’ and families’ experience of care, (2) improving population health, (3) lowering per capita costs, and (4) improving the work-life of health care providers [4,47].

Several studies have demonstrated the ability of team-based care to produce cost savings. Even under a typical FFS structure, implementation of team-based care in the management of uncontrolled hypertension has been suggested to have the potential over 10 years to produce more than $5 billion in savings to Medicare [48]. Moreover, a cost-benefit analysis of team-based care demonstrated that it is cost effective in improving blood pressure control [15]. Furthermore, a retrospective longitudinal cohort study found that per patient payments to the delivery system were lower in the team-based care group ($3,400 compared with $3,515 for traditional practices) and were lower than investment costs of the team-based care program [49].

The implementation of team-based care has been demonstrated to enhance individual clinician productivity. Implementation of team-based care resulted in an increased number of patient visits per day, which generated increased revenue and decreased cost per patient encounter [50].

ACOs can move health care delivery in a positive direction if they establish teamwork as “their unshakeable cultural priority,” while recognizing the challenges inherent in changing established patterns of behavior among clinicians [51]. “Support for team based care should focus on reimbursement for improved outcomes, while patients, payers, hospitals, and practices are held accountable for costs. Payers should create incentives for high value care that improves outcomes while decreasing costs” [4]. However, payers should also recognize that there will be instances when high-value care will not decrease costs or when cost savings will not be realized in the short term [4].

Barriers and facilitators to team-based care have been identified in the patient-centered medical home setting [52]. Barriers included a lack of intentional focus on team building and the loss of autonomy resulting from standardized workflows. Factors that were deemed critical to establishing team-based care included strong leadership—particularly regarding employing change management, co-locating team members in a shared workspace, standardizing roles and job expectations among team members, and adopting of team huddles.

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Conclusion

Team-based care—or the provision of care by two or more health clinicians who work collaboratively with patients and their caregivers to accomplish shared goals—presents a unique opportunity to achieve key aims of a high-quality health system. Successful teams have the capacity to improve patient outcomes, the efficiency of care, and the satisfaction and well-being of health care clinicians.

High-functioning health care teams come in a variety of compositions, yet all possess key features that make them successful. These include shared team identity, values, and goals; leadership; defined and complementary roles; continuity and regular meetings; adequate staffing; shared physical space; psychological safety; open communication and mutual respect; effective help among team members; constructive conflict resolution; task sharing and shifting; team coordination; and observation and feedback.

In increasingly complex health care systems, high-functioning teams are more essential than they have ever been and more challenging to develop and sustain. This paper describes critical, evidence-based elements of high-functioning clinical teams, including clearly articulated goals and roles, an enabling social structure with expert leadership and psychological safety, a supportive organization that assures needed resources, and coaching that promotes the function and well-being of the team and its members. It also describes studies of a variety of clinical teams that have had improved patient and clinician outcomes. Finally, the paper explores opportunities to overcome barriers to the implementation of teamwork in health care by harnessing the power of digital health information technology to support more efficient documentation, standardized communication and workflows, and non-geographically located teams. Team training is also a means for investing in the continuous professional development of clinicians, keeping them engaged and practicing at the top of their licenses. Training can also break down the silo-ed approach to the undergraduate and graduate education of clinicians.

The current payment models are complex and superficially seem to dissuade investment in clinical teams; however, the evidence for the return on investment for training and sustaining clinical teams is considerable in both the FFS and value-based payment constructs. Although the opportunity costs for organizations to invest in clinical teams seem considerable with the increasing complexity and constant change of the health care system, the evidence is clear: Health care organizations that do not invest in training and sustaining their clinical teams will be at a significant financial disadvantage in the long term.

High-functioning teams have tremendous potential to promote clinician well-being, which is foundational to effective and efficient health care. We need additional research to help health care organizations routinely measure teamwork using reliable and valid instruments. There is also a need for longitudinal studies that better elucidate the relationship between high-functioning teams and clinician well-being, so health care organizations and practices have a clear road map for evidence-based implementation of team-based care.

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Implementing Optimal Team-Based Care to Reduce Clinician Burnout - National Academy of Medicine (8)Tweet this!Teamwork matters for #ClinicianWellBeing. But how do we foster effective team-based care? Authors explore in new paper from @theNAMedicine: https://doi.org/10.31478/201809c

Implementing Optimal Team-Based Care to Reduce Clinician Burnout - National Academy of Medicine (9)Tweet this!Teamwork has been found to partially mitigate the relationship between work demands and burnout. Why certain strategies may help us better implement team-based care in an effort to achieve #ClinicianWellBeing: https://doi.org/10.31478/201809c

Implementing Optimal Team-Based Care to Reduce Clinician Burnout - National Academy of Medicine (10)Tweet this!New discussion paper from @theNAMedicine identifies key features of high-functioning health care teams and why these teams are so essential for #ClinicianWellBeing & better patient care: https://doi.org/10.31478/201809c

Implementing Optimal Team-Based Care to Reduce Clinician Burnout - National Academy of Medicine (11)Tweet this!High-functioning health care teams have tremendous potential to promote #ClinicianWellBeing. New paper explores why: https://doi.org/10.31478/201809c

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  19. Schubert, C. C., L. J. Myers, K. Allen, and S. R. Counsell. 2016. Implementing geriatric resources for assessment and care of elders team care in a Veterans Affairs medical center: Lessons learned and effects observed. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 64(7):1503-1509. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14179
  20. Mundt, M. T., V. J. Gilchrist, M. F. Fleming, L. I. Zakletskia, W. Tuan, and J. W. Beasley. 2015. Effects of primary care team social networks on quality of care and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Annals of Family Medicine 13(2):139-148. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1754
  21. Dyrbye, L. N., T. D. Shanafelt, C. A. Sinsky, P. F. Cipriano, J. Bhatt, A. Ommaya, C. P. West, and D. Meyers. 2017. Burnout among health care professionals: A call to explore and address this underrecognized threat to safe, high-quality care.NAM Perspectives.Discussion Paper, National Academy of Medicine, Washington, DC.https://doi.org/10.31478/201707b
  22. Dehn, R. W., D. M. Brock, A. O. Keller, R. S. Hooker, D. Mittman. 2015. Commentaries on health services research. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 28(6):1-3. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000465232.59384.6f
  23. Willard-Grace, R., D. Hessler, E. Rogers, K. Dubé, E. Bodenheimer, and K. Grumbach. 2014. Team structure and culture are associated with lower burnout in primary care. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 27:229-238. https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2014.02.130215
  24. Day, A. L., A. Sibley, N. Scott, J. M. Tallon, and S. Ackroyd-Stolarz. 2009. Workplace risks and stressors as predictors of burnout: The moderating impact of job control and team efficacy. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 26:7-22. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.91
  25. Lin, Y., and Y. Huang. 2014. Team climate, emotional labor and burnout of physicians: A multilevel model. Journal of Taiwan Public Health 33(3):271-289. https://doi.org/10.6288/TJPH201433103012
  26. Mijakoski, D., J. Bislimovska, M. Milosevic, and J. Minov. 2015. Differences in burnout, work demands and team work between Croatian and Macedonian hospital nurses. Cognition, Brain, Behavior 19(3):179-200. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282085378_Differences_in_burnout_work_demands_and_team_work_between_Croatian_and_Macedonian_hospital_nurses (accessed September 2, 2020).
  27. So, T. T. C., M. A. West, and J. F. Dawson. 2011. Team-based working and employee well-being: A crosscultural comparison of United Kingdom and Hong Kong health services. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 20(3):305-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320903384821
  28. Stout, S., L. Zallman, L. Arsenault, A. Sayah, and K. Hacker. 2017. Developing high-functioning teams: Factors associated with operating as a “real team” and implications for patient-centered medical home development. Inquiry (54). https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958017707296
  29. Hooker, R. S., J. Cawley, C. Everett, and D. M. Brock. 2017. Commentaries on health services research. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 30(8):1-3. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000558380.39352.af
  30. Hastings, S. E., E. Suter, J. Bloom, and K. Sharma. 2016. Introduction of a team-based care model in a general medical unit. BMC Health Services Research 16(1):245. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1507-2
  31. Hunt, J. S., J. Siemienczuk, G. Pape, Y. Rozenfeld, J. MacKay, B. H. LeBlanc, and D. Touchette. 2008. A randomized controlled trial of team-based care: Impact of physician-pharmacist collaboration on uncontrolled hypertension. Journal of General Internal Medicine 23(12):1966-1972. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0791-x
  32. Kawamoto, K., K. J. Anstrom, J. B. Anderson, H. B. Bosworth, D. F. Lobach, C. M. Marx, J. M. Ferranti, H. Shang, and K. S. H. Yarnall. 2016. Long-term impact of an electronic health record-enabled, team-based, and scalable population health strategy based on the chronic care model. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings:686-695. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28269865/ (accessed September 2, 2020).
  33. Hackman, J. R. 1990. Teams that work (and those that don’t): Creating conditions for effective teamwork. Somerset, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
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  35. Ommaya, A. K., P. F. Cipriano, D. B. Hoyt, K. A. Horvath, P. Tang, H. L. Paz, M. S. DeFrancesco, S. T. Hingle, S. Butler and C. A. Sinsky. 2018. Care-Centered Clinical Documentation in the Digital Environment: Solutions to Alleviate Burnout.NAM Perspectives.Discussion Paper, National Academy of Medicine, Washington, DC.https://doi.org/10.31478/201801c
  36. Drawz, P. E., P. Archdeacon, C. J. McDonald, N. R. Powe, K. A. Smith, J. Norton, D. E. Williams, U. D. Patel, and A. Narva. 2015. CKD as a model for improving chronic disease care through electronic health records. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology  10(8):1488-1499. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.00940115
  37. Clark, C. 2016. 10 ways EHRs lead to burnout. Family Practice News Digital Network, March 28. Available at: https://www.mdedge.com/chestphysician/article/107632/practice-management/10-ways-ehrs-lead-burnout (accessed September 2, 2020).
  38. Baldwin J. L., H. Singh, D. F. Sittig, and T. D. Giardina. 2017. Patient portals and health apps: Pitfalls, promises, and what one might learn from the other symptoms. Healthcare 5:81-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hjdsi.2016.08.004
  39. O’Leary, K. J., D. B. Wayne, C. Haviley, M. E. Slade, J. Lee, and M. V. Williams. 2010. Improving teamwork: Impact of structured interdisciplinary rounds on a medical teaching unit. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(8):826-832. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1345-6
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  43. Wohler, D. M., and W. Liaw. 2016. Team-based primary care: Opportunities and challenges. Available at: https://www.graham-center.org/content/dam/rgc/documents/publications-reports/reports/StarfieldSummit_Report_TeamBasedPrimaryCare.pdf (accessed September 2, 2020).
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  48. Dehmer, S. P., M. M. Baker-Goering, M. V. Maciosek, Y. Hong, T. E. Kottke, K. L. Margolis, J. C. Will, T. J. Flottemesch, A. B. LaFrance, B. C. Martinson, A. J. Thomas, and K. Roy. 2016. Modeled health and economic impact of team-based care for hypertension. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 50(5):S34-S44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.01.027
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FAQs

What are the 4 Ps of team-based care? ›

A simple analysis of the 4Ps — product, price, promotion and placement — can help a health system executive identify the most promising bundles offerings for their organizational strengths. (A subsequent article will look at the capabilities that health systems need to create bundles.) 1.

What is team-based care model? ›

Team-based care is a delivery model where patient care needs are addressed as coordinated efforts among multiple health care providers and across settings of care. Licensure is the legal recognition and permission of one individual to provide professional services to patients. Patients.

How can team-based care be improved? ›

How to Use Team-Based Care to Improve the Patient Experience
  1. A clear, common goal.
  2. A culture shift that facilitates teamwork.
  3. Supportive organizational frameworks.
  4. Effective teamwork coaching.
9 Jul 2019

What is a characteristic of team-based care? ›

PRINCIPLES OF TEAM-BASED HEALTH CARE

processes and design, five principles emerged: shared goals, clear roles, mutual trust, effective communication, and measurable processes and outcomes.

What is an example of team based care? ›

Health care teams are defined as two or more health care professionals who work collaboratively with patients and their caregivers to accomplish shared goals. For example, an internist and an NP working together to transition a patient with diabetes to insulin therapy.

What are the 4 C's of patient-centered care? ›

Background: The four primary care (PC) core functions (the '4Cs', ie, first contact, comprehensiveness, coordination and continuity) are essential for good quality primary healthcare and their achievement leads to lower costs, less inequality and better population health.

Which of the following is a key component of team based care? ›

Fundamental to the success of any model for team-based care is the skill and reliability with which team members work together.

How does team based care improve patient outcomes? ›

They include enhanced access to care and services with a consistent care team; improved quality, safety, and reliability of care; enhanced health and functioning in those who have a chronic condition; and more cost-effective care.

Why a team based approach is the right model for your medical education? ›

Team based learning provides many advantages in the medical education classroom. It encourages deep learning and teamwork skills that are necessary in the modern practice of medicine. TBL is teacher-centered and encourages students to apply the basic concepts to clinical situations.

What strategies can you use to support other members of the health care team? ›

Schedule adequate time for team building and give the work group a clear timeline. Consider opportunities to foster mutual trust among the care team, especially sharing patient success stories. Create opportunities for team members to get to know each other and interact outside of patient care.

What are the 3 goals for the Institute for Healthcare Improvement triple aim? ›

Improving the patient experience of care (including quality and satisfaction); Improving the health of populations; and. Reducing the per capita cost of health care.

Why is a team approach of significant value in patient care? ›

According to research, team-based care can improve the safety, efficiency and quality of health care. Leveraging the unique skill set and perspective that each member brings to the team enables us to meet patients' needs and advance the health of populations.

What are the most effective types of team based rewards in healthcare organizations? ›

5 Effective Team-Based Rewards
  • Goal-Based Rewards.
  • Merit-Based Rewards.
  • Gain Sharing.
  • Profit Sharing.
  • Discretionary Rewards.

What characteristics make an effective health care team? ›

7 qualities of high-functioning healthcare teams
  • Shared goals.
  • Clear roles and responsibilities.
  • Mutual trust.
  • Reliable execution of the game plan.
  • Ability to adapt quickly.
  • Individualized coaching.
  • Continuous learning.

What are some characteristics of good successful healthcare teams? ›

Six key characteristics
  • Shared goals. If asked to identify their goal at work, most staff members would probably say that it is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care. ...
  • Clearly defined roles. ...
  • Shared knowledge and skills. ...
  • Effective, timely communication. ...
  • Mutual respect. ...
  • An optimistic, can-do attitude.

What is the most effective process to ensure that the care plan is meeting the needs of the patient? ›

The most effective process to ensure that the care plan is meeting the needs of the patient or, if not, which changes should be made, is: communication.

What are the challenges of teamwork in healthcare? ›

Challenges to Effective Teamwork
  • Changing roles. ...
  • Changing settings. ...
  • Health-care hierarchies. ...
  • Individualistic nature of health care. ...
  • Instability of teams. ...
  • Failing teamwork leads to accidents. ...
  • Resolving disagreement and conflict.

How can you be an active member of your own care team alongside your physicians and healthcare providers? ›

Become an Active Member of Your Healthcare Team
  • Find the right doctor(s) It's important to work with doctors with whom you feel at ease. ...
  • Add your voice to the discussion. You are at the very center of your healthcare team. ...
  • Use the Web wisely. ...
  • Come prepared for appointments. ...
  • Keep good records.
20 Jan 2017

What are the 5 key elements of patient-centered care? ›

Research by the Picker Institute has delineated 8 dimensions of patient-centered care, including: 1) respect for the patient's values, preferences, and expressed needs; 2) information and education; 3) access to care; 4) emotional support to relieve fear and anxiety; 5) involvement of family and friends; 6) continuity ...

How do you implement patient-centered care? ›

Overview of Picker's Eight Principles of Patient Centered Care
  1. Respect for patients' values, preferences and expressed needs. ...
  2. Coordination and integration of care. ...
  3. Information and education. ...
  4. Physical comfort. ...
  5. Emotional support and alleviation of fear and anxiety. ...
  6. Involvement of family and friends. ...
  7. Continuity and transition.
8 Feb 2022

How do you demonstrate patient-centered care? ›

Expect patient-centred care from your healthcare professional
  1. Actively participate in your care. ...
  2. Respect in a healthcare setting. ...
  3. Good communication with patient-centred care. ...
  4. Providing a safe environment. ...
  5. Speak to your healthcare professional first. ...
  6. Make a complaint to the healthcare service.

What are the 7 Cs of teamwork? ›

"The 7 C's of teamwork” by Salas & Tannenbaum
  • Capabilities.
  • Cooperation.
  • Coordination.
  • Communication.
  • Cognition.
  • Coaching.
  • Conditions.

Why is it important to know the specific team functions that take place in healthcare teams and to know which healthcare professional is carrying them out? ›

Learning to understand the roles and responsibilities of other professionals is necessary to function effectively on any team, especially in health care, because the team's success lies in providing quality treatment to patients.

What does the NMC code say about teamwork? ›

The NMC Code (2018) states that staff should “respect the skills, expertise and contributions of your colleagues”. In Elaine's case the contribution of the nurses was not respected by the other members of the team.

Why is interprofessional team based care important? ›

Interprofessional collaboration in healthcare helps to prevent medication errors, improve the patient experience (and thus HCAHPS), and deliver better patient outcomes — all of which can reduce healthcare costs. It also helps hospitals save money by shoring up workflow redundancies and operational inefficiencies.

What is interprofessional team based care? ›

An interprofessional team is comprised of team members from two or more different professions (e.g., nurses and physicians, physicians and community health workers, social workers and psychologists, pharmacists and respiratory therapists) who learn with, from, and about each other to enable effective collaboration and ...

What is the tEEAMs approach? ›

The tEEAMs approach is one solution to creat- ing a successful team because it provides an overview of strategies that can positively impact nursing satisfaction. This approach focuses on some of the core components of transfor- mational leadership: time, enthusiasm, engagement, appreciation, management, and support.

How do you implement team based learning? ›

The TBL design process is detailed, involving five key steps: 1) identifying learning outcomes, 2) creating problem-solving activities, 3) writing readiness assurance questions, 4) identifying and/or developing preparation materials, and 5) seeking feedback and making improvements [1].

Why is team based learning effective? ›

For students, Team Based Learning allows for the application of learned knowledge while enhancing problem-solving skills within a group context through multiple self-assessments and revisions. Students also receive real-time feedback on the quiz, resulting in improved learning outcomes.

How do you promote collaboration among clinical professionals? ›

Some organizations have reported that having a nurse and physician (or other health care professional) go through a joint training program will help foster mutual cooperation and collaboration between the different disciplines. Followup and feedback bring closure to the process.

What should effective collaboration within the healthcare team include? ›

Collaborative Care
  • Understanding the range of their own and other team members' skills and expertise and roles in the patient's care.
  • Clearly articulating individual responsibilities and accountability.
  • Encouraging insights from other members and being open to adopting them and.
  • Mastering broad teamwork skills.

How can teamwork and collaboration be improved in healthcare? ›

7 tips for improving teamwork as a nurse
  1. Increase communication. Use written and verbal communication to collaborate with other nursing and health care professionals and develop a team dynamic. ...
  2. Be transparent. ...
  3. Clarify roles. ...
  4. Promote adaptability. ...
  5. Follow up. ...
  6. Complete regular training.

How do you implement triple aim? ›

How to Achieve the Triple Aim for All
  1. Serve as advocates at the local, state, and national level for policy changes that remove health equity barriers.
  2. Partner with leaders from private, public, and governmental sectors on specific equity-focused policy and system changes.
3 Oct 2018

What are some of the barriers to implementing the Triple Aim? ›

The fear of loss of current financial success and of what is known and understood is the greatest barrier to the Triple Aim, even though the Triple Aim is the best path to the avoidance of loss and the superhighway to the realization of our aspirations. The authors acknowledge that these barriers are political.

Which are success factors for implementing triple aim? ›

The key to successful Triple Aim initiatives is to make them last, and to do so organizations should implement population-level measures such as health outcomes and disease burden; develop an explicit rationale for system changes; learn by iterative testing (or start initiatives on a small scale and build outward); use ...

What are the 4 P's of team-based care? ›

The four Ps (predictive, preventive, personalized, participative) [3] (Box 21.1) represent the cornerstones of a model of clinical medicine, which offers concrete opportunities to modify the healthcare paradigm [4].

What is an example of team-based care? ›

Health care teams are defined as two or more health care professionals who work collaboratively with patients and their caregivers to accomplish shared goals. For example, an internist and an NP working together to transition a patient with diabetes to insulin therapy.

Which of the following is a key component of team-based care? ›

Fundamental to the success of any model for team-based care is the skill and reliability with which team members work together.

What are the 5 P's of patient care? ›

During hourly rounds with patients, our nursing and support staff ask about the standard 5 Ps: potty, pain, position, possessions and peaceful environment. When our team members ask about these five areas, it gives them the opportunity to proactively address the most common patient needs.

What is the quadruple aim of healthcare? ›

Definition: Quadruple Aim is the expansion of the Triple Aim (enhancing patient experience, improving population health, and reducing costs) to include an additional goal of improving the work life of health care providers.

What is effective teamwork in healthcare? ›

An effective team is a one where the team members, including the patients, communicate with each other, as well as merging their observations, expertise and decision-making responsibilities to optimize patients' care [2].

What is the role of the healthcare team? ›

Operate and monitor medical equipment. Help perform diagnostic tests and analyze the results. Educate patients and the public about health conditions. Provide advice and emotional support to patients and their family members.

What are the 4 NMC domains? ›

It's structured around four themes – prioritise people, practise effectively, preserve safety and promote professionalism and trust. Each section contains a series of statements that taken together signify what good nursing and midwifery practice looks like.

How do you provide optimal patient care? ›

Best practices for taking better care of patients
  1. Show respect. ...
  2. Express gratitude. ...
  3. Enable access to care. ...
  4. Involve patients' family members and friends. ...
  5. Coordinate patient care with other providers. ...
  6. Provide emotional support. ...
  7. Engage patients in their care plan. ...
  8. Address your patients' physical needs.
6 Mar 2020

What are the 4 principles of purposeful rounds? ›

Attention will be focused on the four P's: pain, peripheral IV, potty, and positioning. Rounds will also include an introduction of the nurse or PCT to the patient, as well as an environmental assessment.

What are the 3 components of the triple aim? ›

In the aggregate, we call those goals the “Triple Aim”: improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.

What is the difference between the triple aim and quadruple aim? ›

The Triple Aim, created by The Institute for Healthcare Improvement, delineates policy implications for improving population health, the healthcare experience, and per capita cost. The Quadruple Aim adds a fourth policy implication, for example, addressing the needs of the healthcare provider.

What is quadruple aim framework? ›

In 2014, the Quadruple Aim—adapted from the widely-accepted Triple Aim [1]—was suggested as a framework to optimize healthcare system performance. The framework encompasses reducing costs, improving population health and patient experience, with a new fourth domain: healthcare team well-being [2].

What is a core value of team based healthcare? ›

Value Team Integration

According to research, team-based care can improve the safety, efficiency and quality of health care. Leveraging the unique skill set and perspective that each member brings to the team enables us to meet patients' needs and advance the health of populations.

Why is teamwork important in healthcare collaboration? ›

For decision makers, it is a way to achieve a better balanced and more productive workforce but also one that is able to better serve the needs of patients. Teamwork is seen as a way to improve quality of care for the patient, not only through improved efficiency but also through a happier and healthier workforce.

How can teamwork and collaboration be improved in healthcare? ›

7 tips for improving teamwork as a nurse
  1. Increase communication. Use written and verbal communication to collaborate with other nursing and health care professionals and develop a team dynamic. ...
  2. Be transparent. ...
  3. Clarify roles. ...
  4. Promote adaptability. ...
  5. Follow up. ...
  6. Complete regular training.

What are the two types of healthcare teams? ›

Most clinical teams are either true teams or template teams.

Who is the most important member of the care team? ›

The Patient is the Most Important Member of the Care Team.

What are the barriers to teamwork in healthcare? ›

Results: The five most common challenges that face healthcare teams relate to accountability, conflict management, decision-making, reflecting on progress, and coaching. These challenges were similar across both clinical and administrative team types.

Videos

1. Promising Approaches to Reducing Burnout and Improving Well-Being (Cynda Rushton)
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2. Reducing Documentation & Administrative Burden for Clinician Well-Being
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3. Taking Action Against Clinician Burnout - Sponsor Reflections - Jay Bhatt and Bernadette Melnyk
(National Academy of Medicine)
4. Clinician Well-Being Case Study Webinar Series: The Virginia Mason Kirkland Medical Center
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5. Physician burnout: It’s not a resiliency deficit
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6. (2021) Interest Group 17: Strengthening Primary Care as a Solution for Current & Future Health Pr...
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