How To Create A C# Unit Test In Visual Studio – Vegibit (2022)

Any time you are writing some software, you probably often find yourself reaching a certain point and then building and running the program to see if things work. As more and more code piles up, it becomes very time-consuming to run and inspect the results yourself. In C# and Visual Studio, it is possible to set up automated testing by way of Unit Tests. A unit test is simply when a developer writes some C# code to test other C# code in an automated fashion. In this tutorial, we’ll take a look at the very basics of setting up a unit test in Visual Studio.

Unit Test Project (.NET Framework)

There is a project type in Visual Studio that is dedicated to creating tests. This is appropriately named the Unit Test Project. We would want to use this type of project to create tests that verify the classes we build work as intended. The unit test project type creates a new assembly with the test code we write. That new assembly will reference another assembly with the code that is being tested. If we want to verify that our StockPortfolio.cs class is working correctly, we create a new test project and write some test code where that test project will reference the assembly with the StockPortfolio. Let’s add a new project in our solution to show this technique. To start, right-click in the solution explorer window on the name of the solution. This will bring up a new sub menu where you can choose Add->New Project.
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Once there, now you would choose the Test option under the Visual C# area, choose Unit Test Project (.NET Framework), and give the new project a name.
How To Create A C# Unit Test In Visual Studio – Vegibit (3)

Once clicking OK, you’ll notice that the solution explorer in Visual Studio now has two projects in it. The original one, and the new test one that was just created.
How To Create A C# Unit Test In Visual Studio – Vegibit (4)

Inspecting the new Stocks.Test project reveals a new Class file named UnitTest1.cs which has this boilerplate code set up for you.

using System;using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;namespace Stocks.Test{ [TestClass] public class UnitTest1 { [TestMethod] public void TestMethod1() { } }}

Running The Tests

Now when you build the solution, what happens is both projects contained in the solution get built at the same time. In our case that means both the Stocks and Stocks.Test projects get built. Let’s build it just for kicks now by clicking Ctrl+Shift+B. Sure enough, this is the output we get.

1>------ Build started: Project: Stocks, Configuration: Debug Any CPU ------2>------ Build started: Project: Stocks.Test, Configuration: Debug Any CPU ------2> Stocks.Test -> C:UsersusersourcereposStocksStocks.TestbinDebugStocks.Test.dll1> Stocks -> C:UsersusersourcereposStocksStocksbinDebugStocks.exe========== Build: 2 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

So we now have a Stocks.exe assembly and a Stocks.Test.dll assembly. We learned about the different types of assemblies on our assemblies tutorial. We can even run the tests right away. We don’t yet have any tests that test any valid logic, but that initial boilerplate code is in fact a test. We can select Test->Run->All Tests to see what happens.
How To Create A C# Unit Test In Visual Studio – Vegibit (5)
The output window shows us what Visual Studio is doing.

[2/11/2019 11:19:41 AM Informational] ------ Discover test started ------[2/11/2019 11:19:46 AM Informational] ========== Discover test finished: 1 found (0:00:04.8223994) ==========[2/11/2019 11:19:46 AM Informational] ------ Run test started ------[2/11/2019 11:19:49 AM Informational] ========== Run test finished: 1 run (0:00:02.5658109) ==========

Then, in the GUI of visual studio we can see a new window, the Test Explorer window.
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In the Test Explorer there’s a single method named TestMethod1. We can see a green check mark which must mean good news. Well, it means the test passed! It passed because we’re not really testing any functionality yet but we will soon enough.

Structure Of A Unit Test

Inspecting that Stocks.Test project shows us a file named UnitTest1.cs. Inside that file is a class of the same name, UnitTest1. Finally, we see a method inside that class with the name of TestMethod1. Just earlier we looked at the boilerplate code that was produced for us. There is a peculiar syntax we see in there where we see both [TestClass] and [TestMethod]. What are those?

Those names in brackets tell the test runner which classes and methods are actually tests. These should be executed during testing to see if they pass or fail and the square bracket syntax is known as attributes in C#. An attribute is a piece of data that is associated with a class or a method. They can be used for many things, but when setting up tests it is important to remember that when writing a test that the test runner will run for you, you’ll need to place that code inside of a method that has a TestMethod attribute which uses square brackets around it. Additionally, the class that the test method resides in must be a public class that has the TestClass attribute as well.

Introducing Assert

The Assert class is where you can start working with actual logic. You can use the Assert class to make assertions against data in the program. If those assertions don’t come back true, then the test will fail with an error. The Assert class has a large collection of methods for testing such as AreEqual, AreNotEqual, AreNotSame, AreSame, Equals, Fail, Inconclusive, IsFalse, IsInstanceOfType, IsNotInstanceOfType, IsNotNull, IsNull, IsTrue, ReplaceNullChars, ThrowsException, and ThrowsExceptionAsync. Let’s try one out. We are going to try to assert that 1 is equal to 2.

using System;using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;namespace Stocks.Test{ [TestClass] public class UnitTest1 { [TestMethod] public void TestMethod1() { Assert.AreEqual(1, 2); } }}

We can now run all the tests and of course, Visual Studio shows us that we have failing tests.
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Once you see that failing test, you can drill right down on the failing test method and get some information about it. Right here we click on the TestMethod1 to get the information that Message: Assert.AreEqual failed. Expected:<1>. Actual:<2>. So the test makes clear what was expected, and what actually happened. You can also double-click the failing method in the test explorer window and visual studio will automatically move the cursor to the location in the test code where the failure happened.
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Let’s make that test pass now. We can assert that 1 is equal to 1. We fully expect this to pass when we run all tests now.

using System;using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;namespace Stocks.Test{ [TestClass] public class UnitTest1 { [TestMethod] public void TestMethod1() { Assert.AreEqual(1, 1); } }}

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Testing The StockPortfolio Class

Ok the information above got us up and running with how to actually create a test in Visual Studio. We now know how to create a new project in a solution for testing purposes, how to identify tests with the Test Attribute syntax, and how to run the tests. Cool. Now let’s make some tests that determine if the StockPortfolio class in our project is working correctly. We can do that by right clicking on the Stocks.Tests project and choosing to add a class. We can name it StockPortfolioTests.
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This will create some boilerplate testing code, but we still have to label the class as a test class with the [TestClass] attribute and to do so, Visual Studio will nudge you to import the Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting namespace.
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Now our code is ready to start adding tests using the Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting namespace.

using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks;namespace Stocks.Test{ [TestClass] public class StockPortfolioTests { }}

References And Access Modifiers

In order to test the StockPortfolio class, we need to use it in our Stocks.Test project. When we try to use it, we get this error: “The name ‘StockPortfolio’ does not exist in the current context”.
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Ok so what happened? Even though our two projects are in the same solution, we will not be able to use StockPortfolio until a reference is established from the Stocks.Test project to Stocks.
We can fix this by right-clicking References->Add Reference->Projects and then selecting Stocks. This allows us to reference the assembly that is created by the other project, the Stocks assembly. Once this is done, we see the Stocks assembly show up in the Solution Explorer.
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That’s great, but now we get a different error message of “StockPortfolio is inaccessible due to its protection level”.
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To fix this, we can change the access modifier of the StockPortfolio Class. When creating a class, if you don’t specify the access level, its default will be set to internal. An internal class can only be used by code that is inside of the same project. If I want to make StockPortfolio available in StockPortfolioTests, it needs to be set to public.

using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks;namespace Stocks{ public class StockPortfolio { public StockPortfolio() { stocks = new List<float>(); } public StockStatistics ComputeStatistics() { StockStatistics stats = new StockStatistics(); float sum = 0; foreach (float stock in stocks) { stats.HighestStock = Math.Max(stock, stats.HighestStock); stats.LowestStock = Math.Min(stock, stats.LowestStock); sum += stock; } stats.AverageStock = sum / stocks.Count; return stats; } public void AddStock(float stock) { stocks.Add(stock); } private List<float> stocks; }}

This is great, but now we are getting an error in this class: “Inconsistent accessibility: return type ‘StockStatistics’ is less accessible than method ‘StockPortfolio.ComputeStatistics()’”.
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Why is this? This is because the StockPortfolio class is leveraging another class, StockStatistics, and it’s access modifier is also internal. We can fix this in the StockStatistics class my making it public like so.

using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks;namespace Stocks{ public class StockStatistics { public StockStatistics() { HighestStock = 0; LowestStock = float.MaxValue; } public float AverageStock; public float HighestStock; public float LowestStock; }}

This should now fix everything we need to create a useful test. We can craft a test to make sure that when we feed the StockPortfolio a collection of stock prices, it will correctly calculate and return the lowest stock price when we ask for it. Here is the code to do that.

using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks;namespace Stocks.Test{ [TestClass] public class StockPortfolioTests { [TestMethod] public void ComputesLowestPrice() { StockPortfolio portfolio = new StockPortfolio(); portfolio.AddStock(100); portfolio.AddStock(25); StockStatistics result = portfolio.ComputeStatistics(); Assert.AreEqual(25, result.LowestStock); } }}

Let’s walk through it.

  • A new StockPortfolio object is instantiated and placed in the portfolio variable.
  • Using that variable, we now call the AddStock() method two times. Once to add a price of 100, and another to add a price of 25.
  • Again from the portfolio variable, we now call the ComputeStatistics() method and store the result in the result variable.
  • We can then assert that 25 is equal to calling result.LowestStock.

Looks like the test is passing!

From here we can continue to add tests as we like and as needed to provide the correct amount of code coverage.

How To Create A C# Unit Test In Visual Studio Summary

In this tutorial about testing in C#, we first reviewed how C# creates an assembly when building a solution in Visual Studio. The resulting assembly shares the name of the project and has a .exe or a .dll extension. The first is an executable file, and the next is a class library. In order to verify that your code is performing as you would expect, you can create and run unit tests in Visual Studio. Unit testing is the process of breaking down a program into isolated actions that you can test as individual units. The Test Explorer is where we can view our tests and run them in Visual Studio. In order to make use of the methods available for testing, we made use of the Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting namespace. It is wise to rerun unit tests anytime changes are made to the code in a program. This will ensure that new code does not affect existing code and the program continues to work as expected.

FAQs

How do I run a unit test in Visual Studio? ›

Tests can be run from Test Explorer by right-clicking in the code editor on a test and selecting Run test or by using the default Test Explorer shortcuts in Visual Studio. Some of the shortcuts are context-based. This means that they run or debug tests based on where your cursor is in the code editor.

How do I create a unit test project in Visual Studio 2022? ›

To create a unit test project

On the File menu, select New > Project, or press Ctrl+Shift+N. On the Create a new project page, type unit test into the search box. Select the project template for the test framework that you want to use, for example MSTest Test Project or NUnit Test Project, and then select Next.

How do you create a unit test? ›

To get started, select a method, a type, or a namespace in the code editor in the project you want to test, right-click, and then choose Create Unit Tests. The Create Unit Tests dialog opens where you can configure how you want the tests to be created.

What is mock in unit testing C#? ›

Mocking is a process that allows you to create a mock object that can be used to simulate the behavior of a real object. You can use the mock object to verify that the real object was called with the expected parameters, and to verify that the real object was not called with unexpected parameters.

How do you write a functional test case in C#? ›

Basic Steps of Functional Testing:
  1. Identifying functions which have to be performed by the software.
  2. Providing the input.
  3. Determining the output which is considered on the basis of the function's specifications.
  4. Then we execute the test.
  5. The last step is about comparing the output with the output which is expected.
11 Feb 2012

How do I run a test code in Visual Studio? ›

There is a much easier way to run all tests:
  1. Install the . NET Core Test Explorer extension.
  2. Open a . NET Core test project in VS Code, or set dotnet-test-explorer. ...
  3. In . NET Test Explorer of Explorer view, all the tests will be automatically detected, and you are able to run all tests or a certain test.
31 Jan 2017

What is unit testing example? ›

What is Unit Testing? Unit testing is testing the smallest testable unit of an application. It is done during the coding phase by the developers. To perform unit testing, a developer writes a piece of code (unit tests) to verify the code to be tested (unit) is correct.

How do you unit test a function? ›

A typical unit test contains 3 phases: First, it initializes a small piece of an application it wants to test (also known as the system under test, or SUT), then it applies some stimulus to the system under test (usually by calling a method on it), and finally, it observes the resulting behavior.

How do you run a single unit test? ›

The easiest way of running a single JUnit test method is to run it from within the test case's class editor:
  1. Place your cursor on the method's name inside the test class. ...
  2. Press Alt+Shift+X,T to run the test (or right-click, Run As > JUnit Test).
  3. If you want to rerun the same test method, just press Ctrl+F11.
16 Jun 2014

How do I add a unit test project in Visual Studio code? ›

It's been 18 years.
  1. Step 1: Install VS Code. ...
  2. Step 2: Create Your Project Folder. ...
  3. Step 3: Reviewing the VS Code Interface. ...
  4. Step 4: Installing the . ...
  5. Step 5: Create and Build a Class Library with Functions for Testing. ...
  6. Step 6: Add an XUnit Test Project and Create and Run a Unit Test via the Unit Test Explorer.
31 Aug 2022

How do I write my test code? ›

  1. Test Small Pieces of Code in Isolation. ...
  2. Follow Arrange, Act, Assert. ...
  3. Keep Tests Short. ...
  4. Make Them Simple. ...
  5. Cover Happy Path First. ...
  6. Test Edge Cases. ...
  7. Write Tests Before Fixing Bugs. ...
  8. Make Them Performant.
28 May 2021

What is unit test project in Visual Studio? ›

All applications must undergo some form of testing. A unit test is utilized when testing a unit of the application. A unit is a portion of code that can be separated logically in a system. In this tutorial, we will use Visual Studio to test ASP.Net apps. It's also used to run an ASP.Net application's test code.

How do I use NUnit in Visual Studio? ›

1.1 Using Visual Studio IDE
  1. Create a new project by going to Visual Studio -> New -> Project.
  2. Add Console. ...
  3. Navigate to Tools -> NuGet Package Manager -> Manager NuGet Packages for Solution.
  4. Search for NUnit & NUnit Test Adapter in the Browse tab.
  5. Click on Install and press OK to confirm the installation.
3 Feb 2021

How do I test a method in Visual Studio? ›

In the Visual Studio editor, set a breakpoint in one or more test methods that you want to debug. Because test methods can run in any order, set breakpoints in all the test methods that you want to debug. In Test Explorer, select the test methods and then choose Debug Selected Tests from the shortcut menu.

How do you manually test a unit? ›

How to perform Manual Testing
  1. Analyze requirements from the software requirement specification document.
  2. Create a clear test plan.
  3. Write test cases that cover all the requirements defined in the document.
  4. Get test cases reviewed by the QA lead.
  5. Execute test cases and detect any bugs.
11 Dec 2021

What are the types of unit testing? ›

There are 2 types of Unit Testing: Manual, and Automated.

How do you name a test case? ›

Be concise.

Test case names are usually limited to a specific length, so space is at a premium. Make sure to keep names unique while refraining from adding any details that aren't required for identification. You can add those details to the case's instructions or test data, for example.

How can I do mock test? ›

Mock Testing provides you the ability to isolate and test your code without any interference of the dependencies and other variables like network issues and traffic fluctuations. In simple words, in mock testing, we replace the dependent objects with mock objects.

Should I use Moq? ›

Benefits of using Moq

It is easier to unit test more complicated objects – Moq makes it easier to unit test more complicated objects without writing a lot of boilerplate code. It also makes it easier to assert that your tests are passing.

How do I debug a unit test in Visual Studio? ›

To start debugging: In the Visual Studio editor, set a breakpoint in one or more test methods that you want to debug. Because test methods can run in any order, set breakpoints in all the test methods that you want to debug. In Test Explorer, select the test method(s) and then choose Debug on the right-click menu.

Which is better xUnit or NUnit? ›

MSTest is concerned, the biggest difference between xUnit and the other two test frameworks (NUnit and MSTest) is that xUnit is much more extensible when compared to NUnit and MSTest. The [Fact] attribute is used instead of the [Test] attribute.

How do I run a JUnit test case from command line? ›

4. Running JUnit Using Maven
  1. 4.1. Running a Single Test Case. To run a single test case on the console, let's execute the following command by specifying the test class name: $ mvn test -Dtest=SecondUnitTest. ...
  2. 4.2. Run Multiple Test Cases. ...
  3. 4.3. Run All Test Cases in a Package. ...
  4. 4.4. Run All Test Cases.
24 Aug 2021

What is unit testing code? ›

In computer programming, unit testing is a software testing method by which individual units of source code—sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures—are tested to determine whether they are fit for use.

Why we write unit test cases? ›

Developers write unit tests for their code to make sure that the code works correctly. This helps to detect and protect against bugs in the future. Sometimes developers write unit tests first, then write the code. This approach is also known as test-driven development (TDD).

Why should write unit tests? ›

Unit testing allows software developers to actually think through the design of the software and what has to be done before they write the code. This can help them to stay focused and can also help them to create much better designs.

What is a good unit test? ›

Characteristics of a good unit test

Fast: It isn't uncommon for mature projects to have thousands of unit tests. Unit tests should take little time to run. Milliseconds. Isolated: Unit tests are standalone, can be run in isolation, and have no dependencies on any outside factors such as a file system or database.

Who should write unit tests? ›

Yes, developers typically write unit tests. However, they are largely responsible for writing these tests to ensure that the code works – most developer tests are likely to cover happy-path and obvious negative cases.

What should I test in unit test? ›

Unit tests should validate all of the details, the corner cases and boundary conditions, etc. Component, integration, UI, and functional tests should be used more sparingly, to validate the behavior of the APIs or application as a whole.

How can one run only test cases of an application? ›

Run using shortcut keys. Run only one test method in a class. Run through the command line. Run using Testrunner class file.
...
Method 2:
  1. Similarly, you may select the class file from the Package Explorer view.
  2. Right-click the file.
  3. Select Run As -> JUnit Test.
  4. The class file executes.
29 Sept 2022

Can we test private methods in unit testing? ›

Unit Tests Should Only Test Public Methods

The short answer is that you shouldn't test private methods directly, but only their effects on the public methods that call them. Unit tests are clients of the object under test, much like the other classes in the code that are dependent on the object.

How do I run a specific test case in jest? ›

  1. To run one test, in that test, change test (or it ) to test. only (or it. only ). ...
  2. Set breakpoint(s) if you want.
  3. In Visual Studio Code, go to Debug View ( Shift + Cmd + D or Shift + Ctrl + D ).
  4. From the dropdown menu at top, pick Jest Current File.
  5. Click the green arrow to run that test.

How do you run a test case in VS Code C++? ›

How to run all test cases of C++ in vscode
  1. Test_input_1.txt.
  2. Test_output_1.txt (Correct output for Test_input_1.txt)
  3. Test_input_2.txt.
  4. Test_input_3.txt (Correct output for Test_input_1.txt)
2 Dec 2019

How do I write a unit test case in NUnit? ›

To mark a method as a test case, we need to add a Test attribute. It tells the NUnit framework that it should run this method. It's a good approach to run our test methods with different arguments, without copy-pasting our test methods. We can define test method parameters by using the [TestCase] attribute.

How do I run a test using NUnit console? ›

Content
  1. Open the cmd prompt as an Administrator.
  2. Navigate to the location of the \bin\Debug folder using the CD command.
  3. Call the NUnit 2.6.4 Test Runner .exe. Default: “C:\Program Files (x86)\NUnit 2.6.4\bin\nunit-console.exe.
  4. Provide name of LegiTest .dll as argument for Nunit Test Runner. ...
  5. Execute command.
26 Jul 2021

What type of testing does NUnit support? ›

NUnit is an open-source unit testing framework for the . NET Framework and Mono. It serves the same purpose as JUnit does in the Java world, and is one of many programs in the xUnit family.

What is unit test project in Visual Studio? ›

All applications must undergo some form of testing. A unit test is utilized when testing a unit of the application. A unit is a portion of code that can be separated logically in a system. In this tutorial, we will use Visual Studio to test ASP.Net apps. It's also used to run an ASP.Net application's test code.

How do I create a unit test project in .NET core? ›

Create unit test project with Moq and NUnit integrated

Step 1: Right-click on the project solution and select the Add -> New Project option. Step 2: Select NUnit test project (. NET Core) and click Next.

Should unit tests be in a separate project? ›

It's a best practice to create a separate project for your tests, so they are kept separate from your application code. The new test project should live in a directory that's next to (not inside) your main project's directory.

Which is better xUnit or NUnit? ›

MSTest is concerned, the biggest difference between xUnit and the other two test frameworks (NUnit and MSTest) is that xUnit is much more extensible when compared to NUnit and MSTest. The [Fact] attribute is used instead of the [Test] attribute.

What is unit testing example? ›

What is Unit Testing? Unit testing is testing the smallest testable unit of an application. It is done during the coding phase by the developers. To perform unit testing, a developer writes a piece of code (unit tests) to verify the code to be tested (unit) is correct.

How do you unit test a function? ›

A typical unit test contains 3 phases: First, it initializes a small piece of an application it wants to test (also known as the system under test, or SUT), then it applies some stimulus to the system under test (usually by calling a method on it), and finally, it observes the resulting behavior.

How do I run a test code in Visual Studio? ›

There is a much easier way to run all tests:
  1. Install the . NET Core Test Explorer extension.
  2. Open a . NET Core test project in VS Code, or set dotnet-test-explorer. ...
  3. In . NET Test Explorer of Explorer view, all the tests will be automatically detected, and you are able to run all tests or a certain test.
31 Jan 2017

What is unit testing in .NET core? ›

However, in this article, we'll focus on how to write unit tests for an ASP.NET Core MVC project. A unit test is meant to test a single part of our application's logic. Our code may have dependencies on lower layers and external components. But these are not validated by unit tests.

How do you name unit testing methods? ›

Naming your tests

The name of your test should consist of three parts: The name of the method being tested. The scenario under which it's being tested. The expected behavior when the scenario is invoked.

What should I test in unit test? ›

Unit tests should validate all of the details, the corner cases and boundary conditions, etc. Component, integration, UI, and functional tests should be used more sparingly, to validate the behavior of the APIs or application as a whole.

How do you write a testable code? ›

Writing Testable Code
  1. Rule #1: Don't do Actual Work in Constructors.
  2. Rule #2: Don't Mix Object Construction With Application Logic.
  3. Rule #3: Don't Mix Service Objects With Value Objects.
  4. Rule #4: Avoid Static Methods.
  5. Rule #5: Favor Composition Over Inheritance.

Can a unit test be written without the NUnit framework library? ›

The NUnit Test Adapter allows you to run NUnit tests inside Visual Studio. If you do not add this component in your project you will not be able to find your tests in test Explorer. You need to install both the Libraries in the project where you are writing the test methods only.

What type of testing does NUnit support? ›

NUnit is an open-source unit testing framework for the . NET Framework and Mono. It serves the same purpose as JUnit does in the Java world, and is one of many programs in the xUnit family.

What is difference between NUnit and Testng? ›

NUnit was Initially ported from JUnit. Tests can be run from a console runner, within Visual Studio through a Test Adapter or through 3rd party runners. Tests can be run in parallel and has Strong support for data driven tests. Unit supports multiple platforms including .

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