Barron's essential words for ielts - [PDF Document] (2022)

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE

    Dr. Lin Lougheed

    Extensive practice in vocabulary building and correct Englishusage, with emphasis on 600 words that appear frequently on the IELTS

    Exercises grouped into thematic categories that include natureand the environment, leisure activities and hobbies, the arts andculture, transpor tation, health, tourism, -..

    --- business, technology, and more

    1ELTS is a trademark of the IELTS Partners. This publication hasbeen neither reviewed nor endorsed by the IELTS partners.

    AsoText Box

  • BARRON'S ESSENTIAL

    ORDS FOR THE

    with Audio CD

    Lin Lougheed Ed.D., Teachers College

    Columbia University

    nguage .).;.l.r..I C)\-Jv:..;,yl e /

    BARRC)N'S

    AsoText Box

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank all the teachersand students around the world who have helped form the content ofthis book. The author is especially grateful to Daniel Nontlan forhis contribution on the history of the circus and to KristenGirardi, the editor, for her generous and careful attention toevery single detail in the book.

    C Copyrtght 2011 by Un Lougheed All rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced or distributed tn any fonn or byany means wtthout the wrttten permission of the copyrightowner.

    AU inqutrtes should be addressed to: Barron's Educational5eries, Inc. 250 Wireless Boulevard Hauppauge, NY 11788W"WW.barronaeduc.com ISBN: 978-1-4380-7071-1

    Ubrary of Congress Catalog Card No.: 2010043858

    Ubruy of CoD&J"eH Catalo...,lDPubUcatlon Data Lougheed, Un,1946-

    Essenttal words for the IELTS wtth audio cd I Ltn Lougheed. p.em.

    ISBN 978-1-4380-7071-1 l. EngJJsh language-Textbooks for foreignspeakers. 2. International

    Engltsh Language Testing System-study guides. 3. Vocabulaxy. 4.English languag&-Spoken English. I. B&JTOn's EducationalSeries, Inc. II. Title.

    PE1128.L6437 2011 428.3'4-dc22

    PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 987654321

    2010043858

  • CONTENTS

    Introduction 1 Vocabulary and the IELTS 1 IELTS Study Contract 2Self -Study Activities 3 How to Use This Book 7

    Unit 1 : The Natural World 9 Environmental Impacts of Logging 9Bird Migration 18 Plant Life In the Taklimakan Desert 27

    Unit 2: Leisure Time 37 Peripheral V ision in Sports 37 Historyof the Circus 45 Uses of Leisure Time 55

    Unit 3: Transportation 65 First Headlamps 65 Major Subways ofEurope 73 Electric Cars Around the Globe 83

    Unit 4: Culture 93 Origins of Writing 93 Hula Dancing InHawaiian Culture 102 The Art of Mime 1 1 1

    Unit 5: Health 121 Nurse Migration 121 Aerobic Exercise andBrain Health 130 How Drugs Are Studied 140

  • Unit 6: Tourism 149 Hiking the Inca Trail 149 What IsEcotourism? 158 Learning Vacations 168

    Unit 7: Business 1 77 What Makes a Small Business Successful?177 Brand Loyalty 186 Global Outsourcing 195

    Unit 8: Society 205 Social Networking 205 Why Are Women LeavingScience Careers? 214 Wheelchair-Accessibility Issues 223

    Unit 9: Education 233 Learning Styles 233 The Homeschool Option242 Educating the Gifted 251

    Unit 1 0: Technology /Inventions 261 The Development of theLightbulb 26 1 The Invention of Variable-Pitch Propellers 27 1 TheTransatlantic Cable 280

    Appendix 289 Answer Key 289 Audioscripts 342

  • Introduction

    Banun's Essential Words for the IEL1S will help famlliartze youwith the vocabula!y you will find on the reading and ltstentngsections of the IELTS exam (International English Language TestingSystem). As the number of words you understand when you are readingand ltstening increases, your speaking and writing vocabulary willtmprove as well.

    VOCABULARY AND THE IELTS Vocabulary is not tested directly onthe IELTS. There are no questions on the IELTS that askspecifically for the meanmg of a word. However, comprehension istested. Can you understand what you read? Can you understand whatyou hear? The more words you know, the more you will understand.The more words you know, the more fluently you will be able tospeak and write.

    Essential Words for the IEL1S will teach you 600 words that youmight find on the exam in reading and listening and that you mightuse in writing and speaking. You will also learn skills that willhelp you learn new words easily.

    Essential Words for the IEL1S will teach you how to use contextclues. The context provides clues to the meaning of a word. Theseclues may be in the same entence or in the same paragraph. You willlearn to look for definitions, synonyms, or paraphrases within thetext.

    Punctuation is another context clue. A definition or a synonymis often set apart by parentheses, commas, dashes, or a colon. Youwill learn to recognize these clues.

    Analyzing a word also helps you determine the meanmg of a word.Compound words, prefixes, and suffixes are other context clues. Youwill learn to recognize common prefixes and suffixes and how wordsare joined together.

    If context clues cannot help you determine the meaning of aword, you can use a dictionary designed for learners of English.You will learn dictionary skills to help you choose the correctdefinition of a word.

    You will also learn about word fam111es. These are the differentparts of speech-noun, verb, adjective, and adverb-that share asimilar meaning. The book presents charts with example sentencesfor each part of speech. The word-family charts include the mostcommon fonns as well as multiple forms.

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  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    In Essential Words for the IELTS you will practice one veryeffective vocabulaxy strategy that willtmprove your comprehension.This effective strategy is to use a word four ways: Read the word,write the word, Hsten to the word, and speak the word. Evetyactivity tn each chapter will help you develop this skill.

    When you learn a new word. you should practice the samestrategy. If you hear a new word, write the new word in a sentence.Read the sentence to yourself. Say the sentence aloud. Evety chanceyou get, review the words you are learning. Say them, write them,read them, and listen to them .

    . IELTS STUDY CONTRACT You must make a commitment to studyEnglish. Sign a contract with yourself. You should never break acontract-especially a contract with yourself.

    2

    Prtnt your name below on line 1. Write the time you will spendeach week studying English on lines

    4-8. Think about how much time you have to study every day andevety week, and make your schedule realistic.

    Sign your name and date the contract on the last line. At theend of each week, add up your hours. Did you meet the

    requirements of your contract?

    MY IELTS STUDY CONTRACT

    I, , promise to study for the IELTS. I will begin my study withBarron's Essential Words for the lELTS, and I will also studyEnglish on my own.

    I understand that to improve my English I need to spend time onEnglish.

    I promise to study English a week. I promise to learn new wordsevery day.

    I will spend ___ hours a week listening to English. I will spendhours a week writing English. I will spend hours a week speakingEnglish. I will spend hours a week reading English.

    This is a contract with my self. I promise to fulfill the termsof this contract.

    Signed Date

  • INTRODUCTION

    SELF-STUDY ACTIVITIES Here are some ways you can improve yourEnglish vocabulary on your own. Check the ones you plan to t:Iy.Add some of your own ideas.

    Internet-Based Self-Study Activities:

    USTENING Podcasts on the Internet

    _ News websites: CNN, BBC, NBC, ABC, CBS _ Movies in English

    YouTube

    SPEAKING _Use Skype to talk to English speakers (http://www.skype.com)

    WRITING Write e-mails to website contacts

    _ Write a blog _ Leave comments on blogs _ Post messages in achat room _ Use Facebook and MySpace

    READING _ Read news and magazine articles online _ Do webresearch on topics that interest you _ Follow blogs that interestyou

    Other Self-Study Activities USTENING

    Listen to CNN and BBC on the radio _ Watch movies and 'IV inEnglish _ Listen to music in Engltsh

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    SPEAKING _

    Descrtbe what you see and do out loud _ Practice speaking with aconversation buddy

    WRITING _

    Wrtte a daily journal _ Wrtte a letter to an English speaker_

    Make lists of the things you see every day _ Write descrtptionsof your family and friends

    READING _ Read newspapers and magazines in English _

    Read books in English

    Suggestions for Self-Study Activities Whether you read anarticle in a newspaper or on a website, you can use that article ina variety of ways to improve your vocabulary while you practicereading, writing, speaking, and listening in English.

    4

    Read about it. Paraphrase and write about it. Give a talk orpresentation about it. Record or make a video of your presentation.Usten to or watch what you recorded. Wrtte down your presentation.Correct your mistakes. Do it all again.

    PLANA TRIP Go to www.concterge.com. Choose a city, choose ahotel. go to that hotel's website and choose

    a room, and then choose some sites to visit (reading). Wrtte areport about the city. Tell why you want to go there.

    Descrtbe the hotel and the room you will reserve. Tell whatsites you plan to visit and when. Where will you eat? How will youget around? Now write a letter to someone recommending this place(writing).

    . .

  • INTRODUCTION

    Pretend you have to give a lecture on your planned trip(speaking). Make a video of yourself talking about this place. Thenwatch the video and write down what you said (listening). Correctany mistakes you made and record the presentation again. Thenchoose another city and do this again.

    SHOP FOR AN ELECTRONIC PRODUCT Go to www.cnet.com Choose anelectronic product and read about it (reading). Write a reportabout the product. Tell why you want to buy one.

    Describe its features. Now write a letter to someonerecommending this product (writing).

    Pretend you have to give a talk about this product (speaking).Make a video of yourself talking about this product. Then watch thevideo and write down what you said (listening). Correct anymistakes you made and record the presentation again. Then chooseanother product and do this again.

    DISCUSS A BOOK OR A CD Go to www.amazon.com Choose a book or CDor any product. Read the product description

    and reviews (reading). Write a report about the product. Tellwhy you want to buy one or

    why it is interesting to you. Describe its features. Now write aletter to someone and recommend this product (writing).

    Pretend you have to give a talk about this product (speaking).Make a video of yourself talking about this product. Then watch thevideo and write down what you said (listening). Correct anymistakes you made and record the presentation again. Then chooseanother product and do this again.

    DISCUSS ANY SUBJECT Go to http://simple.wiktpedia.org/wiki/Main_Page. 1bis website is

    written in simple English. Pick any subject and read the entry(reading). Write a short essay about the topic (writing). Give apresentation about it (speaking). Record the presentation.

    Then watch the video and write down what you said (listening).Correct any mistakes you made and record the presentation again.Choose another topic and do this again.

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  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    FOLLOW THE NEWS Go to http: I I news.google.com. Google News hasa vartety of Unks. Pick one event and read the articles about it(reading). Listen to an Engltshlanguage news report on the radio orwatch a

    news program on 1V about the same event (listening). Take notesas you listen.

    Write a SWillllalY of what you read and heard. Then write ashort essay about the event ( wrttt.ng).

    Pretend you are a news reporter. Use the information from yournotes to report the news (speaking). Record the presentation. Thenwatch the video and write down what you said (listening). Correctany mistakes you made and record the presentation again. Thenchoose another event and do this again.

    EXPRESS AN OPINION Read a letter to the editor 1n the newspaper(reading). You can read

    sample letters to the editor at www.publishaletter.com Write aletter 1n response in which you say whether or not you agree

    with the op1n1on expressed in the first letter. Explain why (writtng). Pretend you have to give a talk expla1n1ng your opinion(speaking).

    Record yourself giving the talk. Then watch the video and writedown what you said (listening). Correct any mistakes you made andrecord the presentation again. Then read another letter to theedttor and do this again.

    REVIEW A BOOK OR MOVIE Read a book (reading). Think about yourop1nion of the book. What

    did you like about it? What didn't you like about it? Who wouldyou recommend it to and why?

    Pretend you are a book reviewer for a newspaper. Write a reviewof the book with your opinion and recommendations (writing). Youcan find examples of book reviews at www.poweUs.com/review.

    Give an oral presentation about the book. Explain what the bookis about and what your opinion is (speaking). Record yourselfgiving the presentation. Then watch the video and write down whatyou said (listening). Correct any mistakes you made and record thepresentation again. Then read another book and do this again.

    You can do this same activity after watching a movie(listening). You can find links to moVie reviews to use as modelsat www.mrqe.com.

  • INTRODUCTION

    SVHifAR.lZE A lV SHOW Watch a 1V show in English (listening).Take notes as you listen. After watching, write a summazy of theshow (writing). Use your notes to gtve an oral summacy of the show.Explatn the

    characters, setting, and plot (speaking). Record yourselfspeaking. Then watch the video and wrtte down what you said(listening). Correct any mistakes you made and record thepresentation again. Then watch another 1V show and do thisagain.

    HOW TO USE TmS BOOK The book is divided into ten units, each onefocusing on a different theme. There are three topics per unit, andeach introduces twenty new vocabulazy words in the context of theunit theme. You will practice these vocabulary words by doingexercises that look just like the questions on the IELTS. You canuse this book in conjunction with Barron's IELTS and Barron's IELTSPracttce Exams to reinforce the sktlls practiced in those books andimprove your performance on the practice tests.

    You can study the units tn any order you like. Many of the wordsintroduced in earlier units are repeated tn later units. For thisreason, you may find it helpful to study the units in order, but itisn't necessazy.

    NOTE The book includes many footnotes to show you the BrttlshEngltsh equivalents of Amelican Engltsh words. You will also hear avariety of accents on the audio so that you can become morecomfortable with the variations 1n English. Both Brttlsh Englishand Amertcan English spelling are acceptable on the exam.

    Each unit follows the same format:

    Words and Definitions Each lesson begins wi th a list of twentyvocabulazy words and a separate list of twenty deftnttions,followed by a reading passage. You wt11 look for the vocabularywords as you read the passage and use the context to help you matcheach word with its correct definition.

    Reading Comprehension The reading passage is followed byIELTS-style reading comprehension questions that focus on thevocabulary words of the unit. There are a variety of question typesthroughout the book so you wtll have an opportunity to practicemost of the types of reading comprehension questions that appear onthe IELTS.

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  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Word Families Next you will find word family charts-noun, verb,adjective, and adverb forms of five or six words selected from theunit vocabulary list. You will practice these words in an exercisethat asks you to select the correct form of a word to complete eachsentence.

    Dictionary Skill/Word Skill This section uses one or two wordsfrom the vocabulary list to help you practice using a dictionary oranalyzing a word to determine its meaning.

    Listening You will listen to a talk or conversation and answerIELTS-style listening comprehension questions that focus on wordsfrom the unit vocabulary list. The different types of talks andconversations and the different question types found in the fourlistening sections of the IELTS are distributed throughout thebook, so you will get practice with listening comprehension fromall four sections of the IELTS listening test.

    Writing You will write in response to an IELTS-style writingtask that uses words from the unit vocabulary list. This is also anopportunity for you to use some of the vocabulary words in yourresponse. IELTS Task 1- and Task 2-type writing tasks are evenlydistributed throughout the book.

    Speaking You wtll practice speaking in response to two or threeIELTS-style speaking questions that use words from the unitvocabulary list. This is also an opportunity for you to use some ofthe vocabulary words in your response.

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  • Unit 1 : The Natural World

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LOGGING

    Words

    Look for the following words as you read the passage. Match eachword with its correct deftnition.

    Words 1 . aquatic 2. array 3. defense1 4. deforestation 5.environment 6. erosion 7. extend 8. fell 9. habitat

    10. impact 1 1. inhibit 12. intercept 1 3. logging 14. myriad15. nutrient 16. pollution 17. stabilize2 18. terrestrial 19.vanish 20. vegetation

    1 BrE: defence 2BrE: stabilise

    Definitions A. n., the natural world B. v., to reach past, getbigger C. n., a large number, a collection D. n., loss of soil fromaction of water

    or wind E. adj., Uvtng 1n the water F. adj., Uvtng on the landG. v., to cut down H. n., the natural area where a plant or

    antmal Uves I. n., a strong effect J. n., protection K. v., toprevent, slow down L. n., plants M. n., the removal of all treesfrom a

    large area N. n., the cutting down of trees for

    commercial purposes 0. v., to disappear P. adj., many, numerousQ. n., damage to atr, water, etc. R. v., to keep from changing,maintain S. v., to catch T. n., food

    I

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Reading

    Environmental Impacts of Logging

    A From shipping crates to paper bags, the logging industrysupplies the raw materials for an array of products. However, thisis not without untold harm to the environment. The damage includeshabitat loss, pollution, and climate change, with the effectsspanning the globe from the rain forests of Central Afrtca,Southeast Asia, and South America to the northern forests of Canadaand Scandinavia. The effects of logging extend beyond just thefelling of a swath of trees. Nutrients, water. and shelter forplants, animals, and microorganisms throughout the ecosystem arealso lost; many life forms-both terrestrial and aquatic-arebecoming endangered as forestsvanish.

    B Trees protect the soil beneath them; thus, tree loss canaffect soil integrity. For example, the rain forest floor, home tomyriad plant life as well as insects, worms, reptiles andamphibians, and small mammals, relies on a dense canopy of branchesand leaves to keep it healthy and intact. The canopy preventssurface runoff by intercepting heavy rainfall so that water candrip down slowly onto the porous earth. Tree roots also stabilizethe soil and help prevent erosion. In return, a healthy soUencourages root development and microbial activity, whichcontribute to tree growth and well-being. A major factor 1nlogging-related soU damage comes from road building, with trucksand other heavy equipment compressing the spongy soU, creatingfurrows where water collects, and disrupting the underground waterflow. Eventually, the topsoil wears away, leaving behind aninfertile layer of rocks and hard clay.

    c Logging can also damage aquatic habitats. Vegetation alongrivers and stream banks helps maintain a steady water flow byblocking the entry of soU and other residue, and tree shadeinhibits the growth of algae. Removing trees obliterates thesebenefits. When eroding soU flows into waterways, the organic matterwithin it consumes more oxygen, which can lead to oxygen depletionin the water, k1111ng fish and other aquatic wildlife.

    D Trees provide a natural defense against air pollution. Theyremove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while they emit oxygen,and their leaves filter pollutants from the air. Cutting down treeskeeps pollutants

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  • UNIT 1 ; THE NATURAL WORLD

    airborne, where they can mJx with water vapor1 and fonn acidrain. Water quality 1n nearby streams and rivers also detertoratesas tree loss contrtbutes to increased sedimentation.

    E In a healthy forest ecosystem, trees draw moisture from theso11 and release it into the atmosphere wh1le they provide shade tolessen evaporation. Thus, deforestation impacts rainfall patterns,leading to flooding as well as drought and forest fires.Deforestation is responsible for about one-fifth of carbon dioxideemissions worldwide, making 1t a major contributor to cllmatechange-in particular, global warming. In the Amazon basin alone,deforestation is responsible for m1111ons of tons of carbon dioxidebeing released into the atmosphere annually. Some logging companiesbum large tracts of forest just to facilitate access to one area-apracttce2 that discharges even more carbon dioxide.

    F Forests, espec1ally the tropical rain forests, are a vitalnatural resource with extensive biodiversity and irreplaceablewtldltfe habitats. More responsible logging practices would helpensure that they are protected for future generations.

    Answer the questtons about EDvll'oDID.eDtallmpacte ofLoglDg.

    Questions 1-4

    The reading passage contains six paragraphs, A-F. Whichpruagraphs discuss the following tnjormatlon? "'ntethe co"ectwtter.A-

    1 . The tmpact of logging on the weather

    __ 2. How trees inhibit soU erosion

    __ 3. How deforestation contributes to air pollution

    __ 4. The impact of erosion on fish

    1BrE: vapour 2BrE: practice n., practise v.

    1 1

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Questions 5-8

    I Complete the SUTTt1Till1'Y using words from the list below.The logging industry 5 .......... trees to get the wood that isused to make

    many products. This practice has 6 . . .. . ... .. effects onthe environment. The natural 7 . . .. .... . . of many terrestrialand aquatic animals are dam-

    aged. Trees protect the environment in many ways. They are aneffective

    8 . .. . . . . .. . against both air pollution and sotlerosion.

    aquatic arrays

    My Words

    defense fells

    habitats intercepts

    myriad vegetation

    Write the words that are new to you. Look them up in thedictionary and write their dejlnitions.

    Words Definitions

    1 2

  • noun

    noun

    verb

    noun

    adjective

    adverb

    noun

    verb

    noun

    verb

    adjective

    adverb

    defense The shade from trees provides a defense against thedrying effects of the sun.

    defender Defenders of the environment work to protect plants andanimals from damage caused by logging.

    defend Fish cannot defend themselves from the effects of waterpollution.

    environment The environment needs to be protected from theeffects of loggtng.

    (Video) Barron's Essential Words For IELTS_ unit 1 _ part one

    environmental Logging causes a great deal of environmentaldamage.

    environmentally It is important to develop more environmentallyfriendly logging practices

    erosion Soil erosion leads to the pollution of streams andrivers.

    erode When soil erodes, there are no nutrients left to helpplants grow.

    extent The extent of environmental damage caused by logging isfrightening.

    extend The Amazon rain forest extends from Brazil intoneighboring countries.

    extensive The Amazon rain forest is the most extensive rainforest in the world.

    extensively Rain forests around the world have been extensivelylogged.

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  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    DOUD pollution

    noun pollutant

    verb pollute

    DOUD stability

    verb stabilize

    adjective stable

    14

    Deforestation contributes to the effects of both air and waterpoilu-tlon.

    Factories add pollutants to the air and water.

    Eroding soU pollutes water.

    The stability of the natural environment depends on theinteraction of many factors. We need to stabilize the damage causedby logging before it gets worse.

    If the banks of the river continue to erode, they will no longerbe stable.

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Word Family Practice

    Choose the conect word fwnUy member from the list below tocomplete each blank.

    Modern industry has caused damage to our natural 1 . . . . . . .. . . in many

    ways. The air and water are filled with 2 .... . ... . . . Oneresult of this is acid rain, which has caused 3 . . . . . . . . . .damage to vegetation in many areas.

    When large amounts of vegetation die off, the environment loses4 .......... .

    If there are no plants to hold the soil, it starts to 5 . . . .. . . . .. . This leads to

    myrtad problems, including water pollution and habitat loss. 6 ... . . . . . . . of wildlife work hard to prevent further damage tonatural areas.

    1. environment environmental environmentally

    2. pollution pollutants pollutes

    3. extent extend extensive

    4. stability stabilizes stable

    5. erosion erode eroded

    6. Defenses Defenders Defends

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  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Word Skill Prefix de-The prefix de- can mean "remove."

    I Read the sentences. Write a dejlnltionfor each underlinedword. 1. When we deforest an area, many animals lose theirhabitat.

    deforest _______ _

    2. Some people prefer to deseed fruit before eating it.

    deseect _______ _

    3. I had to deice the windshield before I could drive.

    dee: __________ _

    Listening

    I Listen to the lecture. Choose the correct letter, A. B. or C.1 . Trees provide a habitat for

    A birds only. B a myriad of animals. C aquatic animals.

    2. are a source of nutrients for birds. A Insects B Roots CLeaves

    3. Trees provide aquatic animals with a defense from A coolness.B rain. C heat.

    4. inhibit soil erosion.

    18

    A Branches B Roots C Trunks

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Writing

    Deforestation caused by human activity is hllppening in manyparts of the world, with serious results for the environment. Whatdo you think can be done to solve this problem?

    Support your opinion with reasons and examples from your ownkrwwledge and experience.

    Write at least 250 words.

    Speaking

    I Talk about the following topics. What kinds of naturalenvironments do you enjoy spending time in?

    What do you think can be done to help solve the problems ofenvironmental pollution?

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  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    BIRD MIGRATION

    Words

    Look for the foUnwing words as you read the passage. Match eachword with its correct definition.

    Words 1. aspect 2. breed 3. diurnal 4. endure 5. evolve 6.fascinate 7. feat 8. fuel 9. hemisphere

    10. imperative 1 1 . inhabit 12. migration 1 3. navigation 14.nocturnal 15. observer 16. obscure 17. optimal 1 8. species 19.stray 20. windswept

    lBrE: favourable

    1 8

    Definitions A. n . type; a basic group in

    biological classill.cation B. v., to live under difficult

    conditions c. n . a priority; an urgent need D. n., a part orfeature E. v .. to interest greatly F. n . a person who watches

    something G. v., to provide energy H. v., to live in I. adj ..active during the day J. n .. a difficult act or achievement K. n.. movement from one place

    to another L. v., to reproduce M. adj . active at night N. adj.,unprotected from the wind 0. v., to make difficult to see P. v., toleave the correct route;

    become separated from the group

    Q. adj.. best, most favorable1 R n .. finding the way fromone

    place to another s. n., one half of the Earth; also,

    one half of a sphere T. v., to develop gradually

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Reading

    Bird Migration

    Migration is the regular movement of animals between theirbreeding grounds and the areas that they inhabit during the rest ofthe year. Many types of animals migrate, but bird migration inparticular has fascinated observers for centuries. Migration is anexcellent example of how nature has responded to the biologicalimperative for species to evolve and spread out into all possibleecological niches that can provide the conditions necessary forspecies to breed and raise young.

    The most common form of bird migration involves traveltng1 tohigher latitudes to breed during the warm season and then returningto lower latitudes during the nonbreedtng period. This form ofmigration allows birds to breed tn areas that provide optimalconditions for nesting and feeding their young. Because of the wayin which the continents are situated upon Earth, migration of thistype takes place prtmartly into the higher latitudes of theNorthern Hemisphere. No land birds are known to migrate into thehigher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere; only species ofseabirds migrate to the Southern Hemisphere to breed.

    Although most bird migration takes place between the lower andhigher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, many species aretransequatortal, living in the Northern Hemisphere during thebreeding season and in the Southern Hemisphere during the remainderof the year. A well-lmown example of transequatorial migration isthe arctic tern. This tern, which breeds in the arctic regions andwinters in antarctic waters, travels 24,000 miles a year durtngmigration.

    Not all migration is long distance. Some species exhibitaltitudinal migration. Their breeding areas are in higherelevations, near or at the peaks of mountains, and they spend thenonbreeding season 1n neighbortng2 valleys or other nearby lowcountry. nus variety of migration is typical of many grousespecies, including the ptarmigan, a type of arctic grouse. Manyrock pt:anntgan never leave the high arctic tundra, spending theirbreeding season atop windswept arctic peaks and the winter seasonin nearby valleys, enduring some of the coldest conditions onEarth.

    Durtng migration, most birds fly for a limited period each day,probably about six to eight hours, typically flying distances ofseveral hundred miles. Some birds, however, undertake much longerflights when their routes include crossing large bodies of water orother geographic features such as deserts and mountains. Forexample, many species regularly cross the Gulf of Mexico, a tripthat requires a continuous flight of more than 1,000 miles andtakes from twenty-four to thirty-six hours or longer. An extremeexample of nonstop bird migration is done by the 1 BrE: travelling2BrE: neighbouring

    11

  • -- --- o -- ..... -

    miles from Alaska to New Zealand each year. At the start of itstrip, about 55 percent3 of its body weight is made up of the fatnecessary to fue.l this amazing journey.

    How birds manage to unerringly travel between distant locationsis one aspect that has fascinated obsetvers for centurtes.Modem-day researchers have attempted to understand this feat. Moststudies have found that migratory birds all have some ability tonavigate and an innate drive to travel in a particular direction.Nocturnal migrants, those species that travel at night, seem totake their navigational cues from the stars. When the stars areobscured by clouds, nocturnal migrants may become confused andreturn to land or stray off course. Diurnal migrants, thosemigrating during the day, take their cues from the location of thesun. In addition, diurnal migrants have also been shown to usegeographic features such as mountain ranges or seacoasts as othercues for navigation. Because the stars and the sun move constantlyover the course of twenty-four hours, this suggests that migratingbirds also have some sense of time.

    Answer the questions about Bird Migration.

    Questions 1-4

    Do the following statements agree with the information in thereading passage? Write

    TRUE if the statement agrees with the information. FALSE if thestatement contradicts the information.

    NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage.

    1. Transequatorial birds cross from one hemisphere to the otherwhen they migrate.

    __ 2 . Many migratory birds breed in the SouthernHemisphere.

    3 . Migrating birds spend the warm months where conditions forbreeding are optimal.

    __ 4. Many birds fail in their migration because they do nothave enough body fat to fuel the journey.

    3BrE: per cent

    20

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Questions 5-8

    Look at the following descriptions of migratory habits. Matcheach type of bird with the correct description. Write the correctletter, A or B.

    A Diurnal species of birds B Nocturnal species of birds

    __ 5. They navigate by looking at the sun.

    __ 6. They navigate by looking at the stars.

    __ 7. They may stop flying when clouds obscure the sky.

    __ 8. They navigate by looking at landforms.

    My Words

    I Write the words that are new tD you. Look them up In thedictionary . and write their deflnttiDns. Words Definitions

    21

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Word Families

    noun evolution Our research plans have gone through manyevolutions and are now quite different from our original plans.

    ---------------------------

    verb evolve

    acijectlve evolutionary

    noun fascination

    verb fascinate

    adJective fascinating

    DOUD migration

    DOUD migrant

    verb migrate

    adJective migratory

    22

    Scientists believe that birds evolved from dinosaurs.

    Through the evolutlonacy process, birds have developedadaptations that allow them to survive in ditierentenvtronrrtents.

    Hts fascination with birds is not hard to understand, becausethere are several bird-watchers in his family.

    The study of the lives of birds fascinates many people.

    The study of birdsong is a fascinating subject.

    Bird migration generally takes place twtce a year. in the springand autumn.

    Migrants stop to rest several times during their journey.

    Some birds migrate thousands of miles to reach their summerbreeding grounds.

    Scientists study the habits of mtgratocy birds.

  • noun navigation

    noun navigator

    verb navigate

    adjective navigational

    noun observation

    noun observer

    verb observe

    atijective observant

    UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Birds use the sun, stars, and landforms for navigation.

    Migratory birds are amazing navigators.

    Birds navigate by looking at the sun and stars.

    Migratory bfrds are born with navigational skills; they don'thave to learn them.

    We can leant a great deal about the lives of birds throughsimple obseiVatlon.

    If birds become aware of the presence of an observer, theyquickly fly away.

    Many people obseiVe birds as a hobby.

    You have to be reaJly obsexvant to spot most types of blrds.

    23

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Word Family Practice

    I Clwose the correct wordfamily member from the list below tocomplete each blank. Birds are 1 . . . . . . . . . . to manypeople, and bird watching is a popular hobby. The best time towatch birds is in the early morning, because

    birds are usually very active at that time of day. The 2 . . . .. . . . . . must keep still and quiet in order not to frighten thebirds away. If you llve in a part

    of the world where 3 . . . . . . . . . . birds spend theirbreeding season, then you

    will have the opportunity to see nest-building activity. Overthe ages, dif-ferent species of birds have 4 . . . . . . . . . .with different types of nest-building

    skills. It makes an interesting study to look at the differenttypes of nests

    built by birds and to watch them as they build their nests.After the

    breeding season is over and the babies have left the nest, it istime for

    the birds to head for warmer parts of the world to spend thewinter

    months. Birds 5 . . . . . . . . . . to their winter feedinggrounds, using the stars

    or the sun as their guide.

    1. fascination fascinate fascinating

    2. observation observer observe

    3. migration migrate migratory

    4. evolution evolved evolutionary

    5. navigation navigate navigational

    24

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Dictionary Skill

    Parts of Speech The word imperative can be a noun or anadjective.

    Read the dtcttonary definitions below. Then read the sentencesand write the letter of the correct definition for eachsentence.

    im-per-a-tive [tm-PER-uh-tiv) A a4Jecttve. very important;essential B nowt. a prtortty; an urgent need

    1 . It is our imperative to protect the natural environment.

    __ 2. It is imperative to keep dogs and cats away from thebird

    breeding area.

    Listening

    ck 3 Usten to the talk. Look at the map below labeled A-E. Lookat the list of places and write the correct letter, A-E, next tonumbers 1-IJ.

    1 . species list

    2. restricted area

    3. observation platform

    4. gift shop

    5. donation box B

    t Entrance

    25

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Writing

    The chart1 below shDws information about d!tferent species ofbirds obseroed in Woodchuck County at dtfferent times of theyear.

    SU1Tl111tl1ize2 the information by selecting and reporting themain information and making comparisons.

    Write at least 150 words.

    Species of Birds Observed In Woodchuck County by Season

    (partial list)

    Species Winter Summer

    bluebirds X cardinals X X crows X X juncos X mockingbirds Xorioles X vireos X woodpeckers X X

    Speaking

    I Talk about the following topics. Many people enjoy observingbirds because they find them fascinating. Why do you think peopleare fascinated by birds?

    (Video) Track 3 Barron essential words for the IELTS

    Are you fascinated by birds? Why or why not?

    What animals are fascinating to you?

    1BrE: table 2BrE: summarise

    21

  • UNIT 1: THE NATURAL WORLD

    PLANT LIFE IN THE TAKLIMAKAN DESERT

    Words

    Look for the following words as you read the pass09e. Mutch eachword with its correct definition.

    Words Definitions 1 . accumulate A. adj., relating to changefrom one type 2. adapt to another

    3. determine B. n., behavior2 to deal with difficult

    dilute situations 4. 5. diverse

    c. v., to gradually increase over time

    6. evaporation D. v., to be in a place: exist in E. v., toreduce to the least possible

    7. extreme aiDount 8. fringe F. v., to grow well 9. mechanism G.n .. the edge of something

    1 0. minimize1 H. adj., varied, of many kinds 1 1 . moisture I.v., to change to fit a situation or 12. occupy environment 1 3.prolific J. adj., strong; sudden and destructive 14. resilient K.n., wetness or water 15. sparse L. adj .. tough, able to enduredifficult 16. stressor conditions 17. sWing M. adj., small innumbers or amount 18. thrive N. adj., very severe or difficult 19.transitional 0. v., to make weaker by mixing with water 20.violent

    1 BrE: m1n1mise 2BrE: behaviour

    P.

    Q. R. s.

    T.

    n., the change from liquid to gas; loss of water to the air n.,a sudden or big change v., to decide n., something that causesgreat difficulties adj., producing a lot of something

    27

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Reading

    Plant Life in the TakUmakan Desert

    The Taklimakan Desert, second in size only to Africa's SaharaDesert, occupies some 337,600 square k1lometers1 ( 130,300 squaremiles) of northwestern China-an area about the size of Finland.Sparse rainfall, daily temperature swings of up to 20C (68F), andviolent sandstorms make 1t one of the most extreme environments onEarth.

    Eighty-five percent2 of the Taklimakan Desert consists ofshifting sand dunes, some up to 250 meters3 tall, that are largelyfree of vegetation. Yet, transitional areas between the open desertand oases on the desert fringe support diverse plant forms that notonly have adapted to the harsh conditions but actually thrivethere.

    Successful desert plants are resilient to scorching summers andfrigid winters, drought, and high-salt conditions. The plants'principal defense4 against these environmental stressors consistsof drawing in as much water as possible while minimizing moistureloss. Three Taklimakan plants-Populus euphrattca. Tamarixramosissima, and Alhagi sparsifolta-represent some of the mostdiverse , prolific vegetation in the area; although they share manysUIVival strategies, each has developed unique coping mechanisms ofits own.

    The Euphrates poplar, Populus euphrattca. the only tall tree inthe Takl1makan ecosystem, has an extensive root system that allowsit to absorb water far from the standing tree. P. euphratlcacontrols evaporation by opening and closing the stomata, or tinypores, on the leaf surface in response to the amount of moisturebeing lost through the leaves to the surrounding air. These stomatagenerally remain open during the day while the plant conductsphotosynthesis.

    P. euphratlca can endure high-salt concentrations in the soU. Ittakes in unlimited amounts of salt through the roots, up the stem,and into leaves, where it dilutes the normally toxic salt byincreasing the number and volume of its cells.

    Tamarix ramosissima, a small tree with needlelike leavescommonly known as tamarisk or salt cedar, takes in enormous amountsof water via a far-reaching root system many times the size of theplant above ground. Like P. euphrattca. tamarisk can naturallydetermine when to close stomata to inhibit evaporation and regulatephotosynthesis.

    I BrE: ldlometres 2BrE: per cent 3BrE: metres 4BrE: defence

    28

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Tamarisk has a high tolerance for salty conditions and evenproduces its own salt, which it accumulates in special glandsbetween the leaves and then releases onto leaf surfaces. Leavesdropping to the ground make the soU more saltne, or salty, gtvtngtamarisk a competitive advantage over less salt-tolerantplants.

    Alhagi sparsifolta. a spiny shrub, thrives in the TakltmakanDesert even though it uses large amounts of water. especiallyduring the summer months. With only a few wispy roots in the uppersoU, it is unaffected by occasional flooding. Most of its rootsreach down deep, where they take up water from as far as sixteenmeters below ground. Unlike P. euphratica and T. ramosissima, whichopen and close stomata according to conditions on the leaf surface,A. sparsifolia does so according to hydraulic conductance-that is,the ease with which it takes up groundwater.

    Although desert plants have adapted for their own survival, theyalso help protect their ecosystem by stabilizing sand dunes,preventing erosion, presenting a barrier to sandstorms, andconserving biodiversity.

    Answer the questions about Plant Life in the TalrJtmakanDenrt.

    Questions 1-3

    lwose the correct letter. A. B, C. or D. l . Most of theTaklimakan Desert is covered with

    A tamarisk. B spiny plants. C sand dunes. D diverse plantlife.

    2. Plants in the Takltmakan Desert A grow only in areas above250 meters high. B thrive in extreme conditions. C are not veryhardy. D are mostly tall trees.

    3. Environmental stressors in the Taklimakan Desert include Asparse sunlight. B lack of salt in the soU. C extreme temperatures.D periods of heavy rainfall.

    21

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Questions 4-7

    Which of the foUowing mechanisms used by plants to survive inthe desert environment are mentioned in the passage? Choose fouranswers from the list below.

    A Having strong roots that can hold on during violentsandstorms

    B Closing pores to minimize loss of moisture

    C Occupying a place in the shade of a larger plant to avoid thescorch-ing desert sun

    D Diluting the salt that the plant takes in E Having large rootsystems that can reach water far from the plant

    F Adding salt to the soU to minlm1ze competition from otherplants

    G Accumulating water in the leaves of the plant

    My Words

    Write the words that are new to you. Look them up in thedictionary and write their definitions.

    Words Definitions

    30

  • Word Families

    noun adaptation

    verb adapt

    adjective adaptable

    noun diversity

    noun diversification

    verb diversify

    adjective diverse

    noun extreme

    adjective extreme

    adverb extremely

    UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Plants in the Takllmakan Desert have adaptations that allow themto live 1n the dry. salty conditions.

    One way that plants adapt to the dry desert is by developingdeep root systems.

    Most plant species are not adaptable to a desertenvironment.

    There is a great diversity of plant life on the fringe of theTakltmakan Desert.

    Change tn cltmate can result 1n species diverstftcation.

    As cltmate changes, plant species tn an area may diversify ifconditions improve.

    The diverse ways that plants adapt to desert conditions makes afascinating study.

    Temperatures tn the Taklimakan Desert reach an extreme duringhot summer days.

    Many plants cannot endure the extreme heat of the desert.

    The weather tn a desert is usually extremely dry.

    31

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    noun resilience

    adJective resilient

    adverb resiliently

    noun stress

    DOUD stressor

    verb stress

    adverb stressful

    noun violence

    adjective violent

    adverb violently

    32

    The resilience of certain plants allows them to thrive in thedesert.

    Desert plants are resilient to heat and dryness.

    Desert plants grow resiliently in the heat.

    A long period of dryness causes a lot of stress to plants.

    The main stressor in a desert is lack of rain.

    Heat and drought both stress plants.

    Certain plants thrive in the desert despite the stressfulconditions.

    The violence of sandstorms keeps many plants from thriving inthe desert.

    Violent winds tear up many plants or cover them with sand.

    The winds blow violently during a sandstorm.

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Word Family Practice

    Choose the correct wordfamily member from the list below tocomplete each blank.

    Desert plants have a variety of 1 . . . . . . . . . . that allowthem to endure the

    desert environment. Because a desert is 2 . . . . . . . . . .dry, plants need to be

    able to take 1n as much water as possible when it rains and tostore the

    water for a long time. Special root systems and types of leavesenable

    them to do this. Another source of 3 . . . . . . . . . . 1n adesert is the high tem-

    perature, so desert plants need to have 4 . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 . . . . . . . . . . storms can occur in a desert, and plantswith strong roots will be able to endure the

    storms. Considering the diftlcult conditions 1n a desert, the 6. . . . . . . . . . of plants that can be found there is trulyamazing.

    1 . adaptations adapts adapted

    2. extreme extremes extremely

    3. stressor stress stressful

    4. resilience resilient resiliently

    5. Violence Violent Violently

    6. diversity diversify diverse

    33

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Dictionary Skill Different Meanings Many words have more thanone meaning.

    Read the definitions below. Then read the sentences and writethe letter of the correct definition for each sentence.

    swing [SWING] A noun. a sudden or big change B noun.back-and-forth movement C noun. a hanging seat that moves back andforth

    1 . The children played on the swing all afternoon.

    2. After a rainstorm in the desert, there is a noticeable swingback to life.

    __ 3. The swing of the branches 1n the breeze made a creakingnoise.

    Listening

    Usten to the discussion. Complete the notes below. Write NO MORETHAN ONE WORD for each answer.

    Talrltmakan Desert Plants

    Many plants Uve in the 1 . . . . . . . . . . areas.

    Stressors:

    little rain

    2 . . . . . . . . . . temperatures

    rapid 3 . . . . . . . . . .

    Adaptations:

    ability to close pores

    large root systems to 4 . . . . . . . . . . water

  • UNIT 1 : THE NATURAL WORLD

    Writing 'The charts below show information about three dffferentdeserts around the world.

    Summartze1 the information by selecting and reporting the maininformation and making comparisons.

    Write at least 150 words.

    Sahara Desert (Afd.ca)

    Size 9,000,000 sq km Average annual rainfall 7.6 em (north)

    12.7 em (south)

    Average temperatures 30C (summer) 13C (winter)

    Temperature extremes 58C = highest recorded

    Takllmakan Desert (Aala)

    Size 270,000 sq km Average annual rainfall 3.8 em (west)

    1 .0 em (east) Average temperatures 25C (summer)

    -9C (winter)

    Temperature extremes -26. 1 C = lowest recorded

    Great Buln Desert (North America)

    Size 305,775 sq km Average annual rainfall 5. 1-51 em Averagetemperatures 30C (summer)

    -8C (winter)

    Temperature extremes 57C = highest recorded

    1BrE: summarise

    35

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Speaking

    I Talk about the following topics. Are you interested invisiting extreme environments, such as deserts or high mountains?Why or why not?

    Why do you think people like to visit extreme environments?

    When you travel. do you adapt easily to new climates?

    31

  • Unit 2: Leisure Time

    PERIPHERAL VISION IN SPORTS

    Words

    Look for the follnwing words as you read the passage. Match eachword wtth its correct definition.

    Words Definitions 1 . anticipate A. n . area 2. athlete B. n. ,a movement 3. blur c. n .. how well a person or machine does 4.boundary something

    5. complicate D. v .. to expect. be ready for something

    6. coordinate to happen

    7. demonstrate E. v . to notice. become aware of

    8. detect F. adv . in a way that is impossible to see or notice9. distracting G. adj . unclear

    10. focus H. adv. , without thinking. automatically 1 1 . indiscernibly I. n . . a person who plays sports2 12. indistinct J. n. . an edge. border 13. maneuver1 K. adj ., at the edge 14.performance L. v. , to look over 15. peripheral M. v . to accept,allow 1 6. range N. v . . to organizeS; make work together 17. scan0. n., something not seen clearly 18. tolerate P. n. , the abilityto see; sight 19. unconsciously Q. v. , to cause to be morecUfficult 20. vision R v . to center attention on one object;

    concentrate

    1 BrE: manoeuver s. adj., taking attention away from something2BrE: sport T. v., to show; model 3BrE: organise

    37

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Reading

    Peripheral Vision in Sports

    Focus in on something as small as a pin. Notice that everythingelse that fllls your whole area of possible sight is indistinct.lacking in detail. We tolerate this large outlying field of blur.this peripheral view, without taking note. We unconsciously acceptit. Sometimes we take charge of how we process all that blursurrounding the tiny center1 that our vision is focused on.Athletes best demonstrate just how much we can use the entire rangeof our vision, fanning out to the periphety.

    An athlete's performance, necessitating high levels ofcoordination and reaction time, depends on tratntng visualabilities, not just tuning muscles. Detecting and keeping track ofas much motion as possible whUe perfonning physical maneuvers Isquite a feat. Peripheral visual information is processed quickly.The office worker might notice the tiny distracting insect movingbeside the computer, but the fast-moving athlete must detect allkinds of motion from evety angle and never lose concentration. Eachperipherally viewed movement must be immediately processed as moreand varied movements from different sources and directions keepcoming rapidly. Good footwork and body positioning w1ll help theathlete gain viewing time 1n this Intense environment, improvingthe opportunity to anticipate what will happen next.

    The athlete's view, full of movement, requires rapid scanningwith visual focus changing rapidly among various distances.Tracking fast objects Is often complicated by the need for theathlete's body to move in response to other aspects of theactivity, and head motion must coordinate with eye movement toassist in balance. A volleyball player, for example, must payattention to body positioning in relation to the speed and angle ofthe moving ball as well as to the court boundaries. all the whUescanning the movement of the other players. Athletes need as muchperipheral range as possible.

    The environment contributes to athletes' visual sharpness.Contrasting co backgrounds, adequate ltghttng, nonconfusing uniformcolor combinations. and less off-court motion all help theathlete's peripheral concentration. It seems odd that visitingbaseball teams are allowed to dress in gray uniforms when brightcolors would help the home team keep a better eye on them.

    Everything that catches the athlete's attention causes the eyesto pause almost indiscerntbly as they gather a quick view offocused detail. As the eyes move in and out of focus, there Is amomentary blur between each pause. This Is when visual trackingerrors can occur. Even the act of bl1nldng, usually at a rate oftwenty-five blinks per minute, or one-tenth

    1 BrE: centre

    31

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    of a second per bUnk, interferes with the athlete's vision.Normal, natural blinking means the eyes are closed for two and halfseconds out of evety minute, and more than that if the athlete isanxious. This is added to the rapid blurs that occur as theathlete's eyes move in and out of focus on speciftc objects. Thesenonvisual moments can be somewhat compensated for if the athletethoroughly tunes in to the game. Anticipation, a learned andpracticed2 art, can serve the athlete well in many ways.

    Answer the questions about Peripheral Vision In Sports.

    Questions 1-7

    Do the following statements agree with the information in thereading passage? Wrtte

    TRUE if the statement agrees with the information. FALSE if thestatement contradicts the information.

    NOT GIVEN if there ts rw information on this in the passage.

    1 . Peripheral vision refers to what we see near the boundariesof our visual range.

    2. Focusing our eyes on one object only will cause that objectto look indistinct.

    __ 3. In addition to physical abilities. athletes need to beskilled at detecting movements all around them.

    __ 4. Office workers tend to find that certain kinds ofmcN'ements are more distracting than others.

    5. A volleyball player does not need to focus on the movementsof the other players on the court.

    6. Poor lighting and confusing color combinations on uniformscan have a negative effect on an athlete's performance.

    7. Athletes blink more often when they are feeling anxious.

    2BrE: practised

    (Video) Track 4 Barron essential words for the IELTS

    38

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    My Words

    Write the words that are new to you. Look them up in thedictionary and write their deftnttions.

    Words Definitions

    Word Families

    DOUD complication

    verb complicate

    adJective complicated

    40

    Playing a ball game is not as simple as it may look; there aremany complications.

    The need to pay attention to many things at once complicates thegame for an athlete.

    A game can become very complicated when there are many playerson the field.

  • DOUD coordination

    verb coordinate

    adjective coordinated

    DOUD demonstration

    verb demonstrate

    adjective demonstrative

    DOUD perfom1ance

    DOUD performer

    verb perform

    DOUD tolerance

    verb tolerate

    adjective tolerant

    UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    It is important for an athlete to have good physicalcoordination.

    An athlete must coordinate physical skill wtth sharp vtsion toplay a game well.

    The coordinated movements of all the team members will help themwin the game.

    The athlete gave a demonstration of the correct way to throw theball.

    Professional athletes demonstrate a htgh level of skills.

    The way that goal was scored was demonstrative of good teamworkin action.

    The team gave an excellent performance at last night's game.

    All the performers did a good job. The entire team performedwell during the game.

    An athlete should have tolerance for hard physical actlvtty.

    Athletes need to be able to tolerate a htgh level of actionaround them.

    Good athletes always try to do their best but must stlll betolerant of occasional failure.

    41

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    noun vision

    adjective visual

    adverb visually

    Word Family Practice

    Good vision is important for playing sports well.

    In sports, visual abilities can be as important as physicalabilities.

    The coach used drawings to explain the game visually.

    Choose the correct word fwnUy member from the list below tocomplete each blank.

    In order to 1 . . . . . . . . . . well, an athlete must have anumber of different

    abilities. Naturally, she should 2 . . . . . . . . . . excellentphysical skills. In

    addition to strength, 3. . . . . . . . . . of all parts of thebody while moving

    around the court or field is very important. The athlete alsoneeds to

    have good 4 . . . . . . . . . . abilities. She needs to be ableto see what is happen-

    ing around her so that she can respond to the other players'maneuvers.

    She has to be 5 . . . . . . . . . . of activity around herwithout losing her ability

    to focus on her own part in the game. Finally, she needs to be afast

    thinker. 6 . . . . . . . . . . can occur in any game, and theathlete needs to be able to respond to them quickly.

    1 . performance performer perform

    2. demonstrations demonstrate demonstrative

    3. coordination coordinate coordinated

    4. vision visual visually

    5. tolerance tolerate tolerant

    6. Complications Complicate Complicated

    42

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    Dictionary Skill Parts of Speech Focus can be either a noun or averb. Blur can also be either a noun or a verb.

    Read the dictionary definitions below. Then read the sentencesand write the letter of the correct deftnitionfor each sentence.QUESTIONS 1-2

    fo-cus [FO-kus] A noun. the center of attention B verb. tocenter attention on one object: concentrate

    1 . When playing a game. always focus on the ball.

    2. Keep your focus on the goal.

    QUESTIONS 3-4 blur [BLUR] A noun. something not seen clearly Bverb. make unclear

    __ 3. I couldnt follow the game: it was all a big blur tome.

    __ 4. Poor lighting can blur the players vision.

    Listening

    Listen to the discussion. Complete the notes below. Write NOMORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

    Vision and Basketball Basketball players have to 1 . . . . . . .. . . . on the ball. They have to 2 . . . . . . . . . .

    the other players maneuvers. They 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . thewhole court to see the

    actions of the rest of the players. They dont think about this;they do it 4 ............. .

    43

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Writing Do you believe that professional athletes make good rolemodels for young people?

    Support your opinion with reasons and examples from your ownlmowledge or experience.

    Write at least 250 words.

    Speaking

    I Talk about the following topics. Do you focus better on yourstudies or work when you are in a quiet environment, or do youprefer to have activity going on around you?

    What kinds of things are distracting to you when you study orwork?

    Do you anticipate any major changes in your work or studysituation in the next year?

    44

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    IDSTORY OF THE CIRCUS

    Words

    Look for the foUowtng words as you read the passage. Match eachword with its correct definition.

    Words 1 . ancient 2. band 3. century 4. develop 5. entertainment6. exhibit 7. exotic 8. tound 9. grandeur

    10. massive 1 1 . pennanently 12. popular 1 3. reduce 14.remnant 1 5. renovation 16. spectator 1 7. survive 18. talent 19.trainer 20. venue

    Definitions A. B. c.

    D. E. F.

    G. H. I. J. K. L. M.

    N. 0. P. Q. R.

    s. T.

    v. , to make something smaller v. , to continue, stay altve n. ,something shown to the public; a display n. , a special ability n., a small group n. , a person who watches an event n. , a period of100 years n. , a small leftover piece v. , to grow and change adj ., very old, of the distant past n. , place where an event is heldn. , a performance or show n. , a person who teaches skills topeople or animals n. , greatness adj . , very big adv. , for alwaysn. , repair or rebuilding v. , to start or establish an institutionadj . , liked by many people adj . , unusual, from a foreignplace

    41

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Reading

    History of the Circus

    The circus is one of the oldest forms of entertainment inhistocy. Although the modem circus has been around for a fewcenturies, related forms of public entertainment have been inexistence for millennia. The animal trainers, clowns, and othercircus performers who are familiar to us today can trace theirroots to the coliseums, stadiums, and racetracks of the ancientworld.

    The ancient Romans were the first to enjoy the circus. Aroundthe sixth centwy B.c. , the Circus Maximus was founded in Rome as avenue for public entertainment, mostly chariot races, which were apopular spectator sport. Other events held at the Circus Maxtmusincluded gladiator fights and exhibits of exotic animals such aselephants and tigers. These entertainments were less common thanchariot races but still vecy popular. The original Circus Maximusvenue was built entirely of wood. By the height of the RomanEmpire, it had gone through several renovations and had become amassive marble stadium that could seat more than 200,000spectators.

    Chariot races continued to be held at the Circus Maximus foralmost a centwy after the last remnants of the Roman Empire hadvanished. Eventually, the site was permanently retired, and publicentertainment was reduced to small bands of traveling1 performersand animal trainers. It was during the Dark Ages that the circusbegan to develop into what we know today. The monarchs of Europehad court jesters, whose duty it was to provide amusement for thecourt. They combined the talents of jugglers, mimes, and clowns.The more common people enjoyed the performances of travelingentertainers, who went from vtllage to vtllage, putting on showsduring festivals. These performers made up the medieval circus,which had little in common with the Circus Max:lmus other thanadopting the word circus as its name. Leisure time was extremelyrare during the Dark Ages, and people had few opportunities toenjoy circus performances. However, the circus survived to make areturn to its former grandeur in the eighteenth centucy.

    England was one of the first nations to embrace the modemcircus. During the late 1700s, an Englishman named Phtlip Astleyfounded the first modem circus. He was a skilled rider who inventedstunt riding on horseback. He performed his stunts in a circusring, another of his ideas, within an indoor stadium. Mter his actbecame popular in London, he was asked by Louis XV to perform inFrance. He later expanded his act to include clowns, acrobats, andparades of trained animals. The last addition to his act wasslapstick humor. He had horseback riders

    1 BrE: travelling

    48

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    pretend to fall off their horses and then go stumbling afterthem. Shortly after Astley's death, the circus spread toAmerica.

    During the early 1 800s, the United States took to the circusquickly after learning of its popularity in Europe. Joshua Brown,an American businessman, introduced the circus tent in 1 825. Theuse of portable tents allowed him to take his act all over thecountry. His traveling circus was a massive success as a businessenterprise and loved by audiences everywhere. Most circuses todayare variations of Brown's circus.

    Answer the questions about History of the Circus.

    Questions 1-4

    Do the joUowtng describe the ancient circus, the modem circus,or both? Write the correct letter; A. B, or C.

    A Ancient circus B Modem circus C Both the ancient circus andthe modem circus

    1 . had animal exhibits

    2. entertained spectators with races

    ___ 3. entertainments included falling off horses

    ___ 4. took place in a massive venue

    Questions 5-7

    I Choose_Uw correct Uer. B

    _,_c_

    ,_o_r_D_

    . _____________

    5. The Circus Maximus A was not a popular place to visit. Bdeveloped during the Dark Ages. C went through a number ofrenovations. D took place in a portable tent.

    47

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    6. The court jesters of the Dark Ages usually A were sk11ledanimal trainers. B had several different talents. C performed atvillage festivals. D entertained the common people.

    7. In the eighteenth century, the modem circus was founded by Aa horse rider from England. B a Roman businessman. C someperformers in France. D a band of American entertainers.

    My Words

    Write the words that are new to you. Look them up in thedi.ctionary and write their definitions.

    Words Defmitions

    48

  • Word Families

    DOUD development

    DOUD developer

    verb develop

    DOUD entertainment

    DOUJl entertainer

    verb entertain

    adjective entertaining

    DOUJl permanence

    adjective permanent

    adverb permanently

    UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    Joshua Brown's introduction of the circus tent was an importantcontribution to the development of the circus.

    Philip Astley is known as the developer of stunt riding.

    The circus has developed in different ways over the years.

    The circus is still a favorite form of entertainment today.

    The job of a circus entertainer looks like fun, but it is reallyvecy diftlcult.

    People often hire clowns to entertain children at parties.

    We spent a vecy entertaining afternoon at the circus.

    The permanence of the circus as a form of entertainment showshow much people enjoy it.

    UnUke the traveling bands of performers, court jesters hadpermanent jobs.

    Circuses don't stay in one place permanently but travel aroundfrom city to city.

    41

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    DOUD popularity

    verb popularize 1

    adJective popular

    adverb popularly

    DOUD survival

    DOUD survivor

    verb survive

    DOUD trainer

    verb train

    adJective trained

    I BrE: popularlse

    The circus still enjoys great popularity.

    Joshua Brown helped to popularize the circus in America.

    The circus is popular all over the world.

    The modem circus is popularly known as the Big Top.

    The survival of the circus is due to its ability to change withthe times.

    The circus as a form of entertainment is a survivor of the hardtimes of the Dark Ages.

    The circus has survived in many forms throughout thecenturies.

    A circus animal trainer has to be able to work with exoticanimals.

    Some animals are easier to train than others.

    Many circuses use trained elephants in their show.

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    Word Family Practice

    Choose the correct word fa.rnily member from the list below tocomplete each blank.

    The 1 . . . . . . . . . . of the modern circus began in Englandin the eighteenth

    centwy. A skilled horseback rtder1 2 . . . . . . . . . .audiences With stunt

    riding. He later added other ld.nds of performances to the show,such

    as clowns and 3 . . . . . . . . . . animals. The show becamevery 4 . . . . . . . . . . . and

    the idea spread to other countries. The circus has 5 . . . . . .. . . . the test

    of time and is. still enjoyed by people today. It holds a 6 . .. . . . . . . . place in our hearts.

    1 . development developer developed

    2. entertainment entertainer entertained

    3. trainers trains trained

    4. popularity popularize popular

    5. survival survivors survived

    6. permanence permanent permanently

    1 BrE: horse rider

    51

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Dictionary Skill Dljferent Meanings Many words have more thanone meaning.

    Read the definitions below. Then read the sentences and writethe letter of the correct deftnttionfor each sentence. QUESTIONS1-2

    found [FOWNDl A verb. to start or establish an institution Bverb. past tense and past participle of the verb find

    (Video) Barron's Essential Words for the IELTS_Unit 2_Text1

    1 . After we found our seats, we sat down and enjoyed the circusperformance.

    __ 2. It takes a lot of money, effort, and daring to found anentertainment business.

    QUESTIONS 3-4

    band [BAND] A noun. a small group B noun. a strip of cloth

    __ 3. People walked around the tent in bands while they waitedfor the circus performance to begin.

    52

    4. The performers wore brightly colored bands around theirwaists.

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    Listening

    I Usten ro the talk. Choose the correct WISwer; A. B, or c. 1 .When was the Sprtngfleld Circus founded?

    A 25 years ago B 75 years ago C 100 years ago

    2. What has not changed since the circus was founded? A Thevenue B The ticket price C The number of performers

    3. What kinds of animals begin the show? A Exotic B Trained CMassive

    4. What is the most popu1ar part of the show? A Animals B ClownsC Dancers

    53

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Writing

    In your opinion. why is the circus still a popular form ofentertainment in the modem electronic age?

    Support your opinion with reasons and examples from your ownknowledge or experience.

    I Write at least 250 words. Speaking

    I Talk about the joUowing topics. What forms of entertainmentare popular 1n your city?

    Do you prefer to watch 1V and movies or to see Uveentertatnment?

    Are you talented in any performing arts? What talents do youhave that you would Uke to develop more?

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    USES OF LEISURE TIME

    Words

    Look for the joUowtng words as you read the passage. Match eachword with its correct deftni.ttDn.

    Words Definitions 1 . acknowledge A. adj . not active 2.authority B. adv., only 3. chunk c. n. , a strong feellng such asanger 4. crucial or love

    . 5. deliberately D. n . a large piece

    6. depression E. v., to admit, accept as true

    7. emotion F. adj., very important

    8. engage G. adj., overpowering; very large

    9. industrious H. v., to refresh, restore

    10. intellectual I. adv . intentionally, on purpose

    1 1 . merely J. n., person with power or special

    12. obesity lmowledge

    13. obvious K. v . to participate in something

    14. overwhelming L. n., a free-time activity

    1 5. passive M. adj . not wanting to do something; unwilling 16. pastime N. adj . related to thinking 17. physical 0. adj . easyto see, clear 18. rejuvenate P. v ., to experience somethingcWllcult 19. reluctant or painful 20. suffer Q. adj . related tothe body

    R adj., hardworking s. n., constant sadness T. n., the conditionof being very

    overweight

    55

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Reading

    Uses of Leisure Time

    A Although it may seem that people are working more, studiesshow that we have more leisure time than ever before. Yetresearchers are reporting higher levels of both stress and obesity.These reports appear to be a sign that we are not using our leisuretime to our best advantage.

    B Health experts agree that the best way to restore body andmind is to spend time in nature pursuing a comfortable level ofphysical exercise. Spending time in natural surroundings isespecially crucial now because, for the first time, a majority ofthe world's population live in cities. Recent studies show thatintellectual function weakens as a result of the energy expendedsimply sorting out the oveiWhelming sttmuli of city life. Testsdemonstrate that people suffer decreases in attention span, memory,and problem-solving ability after taking a short walk on a busycity street or merely seeing pictures of city life. Tests also showthat time spent in the city results in a decreased ability toconcentrate and to control emotions and impulses. On the otherhand, spending time in the country produces the oppositeeffects.

    c Unfortunately, as society becomes more centered 1 on citylife, we have to rejuvenate ourselves in nature deliberately ratherthan as a matter of course. Yet research shows that we are notspending our leisure time rejuvenating ourselves. Around the world,the most popular way to spend free time is watching television.This, the most passive of pastimes, is how Americans spend morethan half their leisure time. Globally, the next most popular isusing the Internet, also passive, and it ranks as the most favored2among the billions in China. The third is shopping, hich may beslightly more active but is stlll as far from nature as possible.Modem shopping malls remove shoppers from everything natural,leaving them to experience the outdoors only between the pavedparking lot3 and the mall doors.

    1 BrE: centred 2BrE: favoured 3BrE: car park

  • UNIT 2 : LEISURE TIME

    D Children are most negatively affected by city life. Parentsare reluctant to let children play freely in the city, fearing fortheir health and safety, and nature is something many children inthe city may never have a chance to expertence. Childhood obesityand depression are reaching epidemic levels. Authorttles have begunto acknowledge the problem, and innovative programs4 that gtvechildren an opportunity to spend time in nature are beingintroduced in countries around the world.

    E Vacatlons5 are the most obvious chunk of leisure time. Thecountries with the most vacation time are Italy, with an average offorty-two days a year, and France, with thirty-seven. Theindustrious Amertcans have the least: thirteen days. Yet thecountry most satisfied with their vacations are not the Italiansbut the Brttish. The Brttish usually divide up their vacation time,taking it in pieces throughout the year rather than all at once. Ofall nationalities, the British spend the most time vacationingoutdoors in their national-trust parks, where they engage in acomfortable level of physical activity. The British report thegreatest satisfaction with their leisure time. Perhaps the rest ofthe world would do we11 to fo11ow their lead .

    Answer the questions about Uses of Leisure Time.

    Questions 1-3

    The reading passage contains five paragraphs, A-E. Whichparagraphs discuss the foUowing information? Write the correctletter, A-E.

    1 . The most popular pastimes in different countries around theworld

    __ 2. Why it is crucial to spend time in nature

    3. In which country people spend the largest chunk of vacationtime engaged in outdoor activities

    4BrE: programmes 5BrE: Holidays

    57

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE JELTS

    Questions 4-6

    I Choose the correct letter. A, B. c. or D. 4. We can bestrejuvenate ourselves by spending time engaged in

    A physical activities. B passive activities. C activities withchildren. D activities 1n the city.

    5. When chUdren do not spend time in nature, they A fear fortheir health and safety. B suffer from obesity and depression. Care reluctant to spend time with their parents. D have more time todevelop their intellectual functioning.

    6. The ovexwhelming character of city life affects our Ainterest in nature. B choice of pastimes. C relationships withchildren. D emotions and intellectual function.

    My Words

    Write the words that are new to you. Look them up in thedictionary and write their definitions.

    Words Definitions

    58

  • Word Families

    noun authority

    verb authorize 1

    adjective authoritative

    adverb authoritatively

    DOUD deliberation

    verb deliberate

    adjective deliberate

    adverb deliberately

    noun emotion

    adjective emotional

    adverb emotionally

    1 BrE: authorise

    UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    The authorities decided to keep the park open in the evenings sofam1lies could spend more time in nature.

    The school director authorlzed the teachers to spend a largerchunk of the school day outdoors with their students.

    According to an authoritative source, spending time in natureimproves our health.

    The expert wrote authoritatively about the topic of exercise andits effects on mental health.

    After deliberation, he decided to spend some time every dayengaged in outdoor activities.

    The group deliberated for an hour before reaching adecision:

    It is obvious that people need to make a deliberate decision tospend more time in nature.

    We need to spend time in nature deliberately.

    The stress of city life can make emotions difficult tocontrol.

    Children who don't spend a lot of time playing outdoors can endup with emotional problems.

    People respond emotionally to the ovexwhelming stimuli of thecity.

    59

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    noun industry

    adjective industtious

    adverb industriously

    DOUD intellect

    DOUD intellectual

    adJective intellectual

    adverb intellectually

    noun reluctance

    adjective reluctant

    adverb reluctantly

    10

    His favorite pastime is building model ships, and he always goesabout this activity with great industry.

    He is always industrious even when engaged in leisure-timeactivities.

    He worked on his project industriously.

    The stress of city life has effects on the intellect.

    I enjoy reading the works of the great intellectuals of thenine-teenth centwy.

    Some people enjoy spending their leisure time engaged inintellectual activities.

    Some people look for experiences that engage themintellectually.

    Reluctance to spend time in nature is a problem for modernchildren.

    People can be reluctant to leave their familiar citysurroundings to explore unknown places.

    They reluctantly agreed to spend their vacation at a nationalpark.

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    Word Family Practice

    I Choose the correct word family member from the list below tocomplete each blank. It is cructal to acknowledge the importance ofleisure-time activities.

    They are not merely a way to use up free time. They areimportant for

    our physical and 1 . . . . . . . . . . health. We need to chooseactivities that rest our minds and bodies so that we can feelrejuvenated when we return to

    work and can do our jobs more 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Somepeople enjoy 3 . . . . . . . . . .

    pastimes; other people choose different sorts of leisure-timeactivities.

    The key is to be 4 . . . . . . . . . . about choosing a pastimethat ts active rather

    than passive. Many people feel 5 . . . . . . . . . . to bephysically active after a tir-

    ing week at work. However, 6 . . . . . . . . . . tell us thatthis is actually the best way to decrease stress and relax.

    1 . emotions emotional emotionally

    2. industry industrious industriously

    3. intellect intellectual intellectually

    4. deliberation deliberate deliberately

    5. reluctance reluctant reluctantly

    6. authorities authorizes authoritative

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Dictionary SJdll Different Meanings Many words have more thanone meaning.

    Read the dejlnttions below. Then read the sentences and writethe letter of the correct definition for each sentence. QUESDONS1-2

    en-gage [en-GAYJ) . A verb. to participate B verb. to hire

    1 . The school engaged a special teacher to teach classes aboutnature.

    __ 2. Every afternoon, the children engage in outdooractivities.

    QUESTIONS 3-4

    82

    in-dus-try [IN-dus-tree) A rwun. hard work B noun. productionand sale of goods

    3. Many people in this city work in the clothing industry.

    4. Industry will help you move up in your profession, but don'tforget to spend some time in leisure activities as well.

  • UNIT 2: LEISURE TIME

    Listening

    ---------------------------------------------- Usten to thetalk. Complete the rwtes below. Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD foreach answer. Research on Leisure

    People engaged in 1 . . . . . . . . . . pastimes don't feelrejuvenated.

    Popular Pastimes: 2 . . . . . . . . . . Activities SportsPlaying with children Gardening

    3 . . . . . . . . . . Activities Reading Playing computer gamesDoing puzzles Using the Internet

    Activities that exercise both our minds and bodies help us avoid4 . . . . . . . . . . and 5 . . . . . . . . . . .

    83

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Writing 1l1e numbers below show basic information about uses ofleisure ttme anwng dYferent age groups.

    Summarl.ze1 the information by selecting and reporting the maininformation and making comparisons.

    Write at least 1 50 words.

    Putlmea by Ale (mlnutea per weekend clay)

    Computer Reading Oeisure use)

    1 3-19 years old 5 75

    20-65 years old 30 30

    66+ years old 60 30

    Speaking

    I Talk about the joUowlng topics.

    Sports and exercise

    60

    1 20

    20

    What are some of your favorite pastimes? Why do you enjoythem?

    Do you prefer physical or intellectual acttvtttes forrelaxation?

    1 BrE: summarise

  • Unit 3: Transportation

    FIRST HEADLAMPS

    Words

    Look for the following words as you read the passage. Match eachword with its correct deftn1tlon.

    Words Definitions 1 . cast A. n., the engine of a train 2.disaster B. n., a method or type 3. display c. v., to show orexhibit 4. drawback D. v., to throw light on something 5. efficientE. adj ., easy to cany 6. equip F. adj . very strong 7. freight G.n., a problem; disadvantage 8. generate H. n., cargo carried by atrain, truck, 9. illuminator or ship

    10. innovation I. adj ., weak; Without defense1

    1 1 . intense J. n . a terrible event

    12. knot K. n., a hard bump in wood

    13. locomotive L. v., to make or produce 14. mode M. adj.,difllcult

    15. portable N. n., an object that produces light

    1 6. reflector 0. adj., able to work without waste 17. rugged P.n., an object that sends light back

    1 8. stringent or makes it stronger

    19. tricky Q. adj . strict, firm 20. vulnerable R v., to proVidewith something

    s. adj ., strong; able to stand rough treatment

    T. n., a new idea or product

    1 BrE: defence

  • ESSENTIAL WORDS FOR THE IELTS

    Reading

    First Headlamps

    A Before electricity, light was tricky business. Flames castltmtted light, are vulnerable to winds and weather, and can lead todisaster. Making fire portable and dependable was so difficult thatlights on moving vehicles were hardly ever considered.

    B The early trains traveled 1 only during the day. The trackswere too dangerous during the dark of night, and passengers wantedto see where they were traveling anyway. In the late 1 830s,railroad traffic became heavy enough for freight trains to delaypassenger trains. To avoid these delays, railroads started runningfreight trains at night. Horatio Allen's 1 83 1 innovation, the'!rack Illuminator," was suddenly in demand. It was a pile of pineknots burning in an iron grate that sat in a box of sand on aplatform car. The car was pushed ahead of the locomotive. Theilluminator did not cast much light. but it warned of theapproaching train and was the best technology available.

    c In 184 1 , some trains used an oil2 lamp backed by a cuiVedreflector, an improvement, but oil lamps blew out easily in thewind, including the wind generated by the movement of the train. Atabout the same time, Schenectady and Troy Railroad trains displayeda whale oil lamp positioned between a reflector and a lens abouttwelve inches high; it threw llght up to 100 feet ahead of thetrain. Although this was an improvement, the braking distance thetrains required was more than the 1 00 feet of track that wereilluminated. In 1 849, a calcium lamp was developed that threwlight 1 ,000 feet and lasted four hours; however, the only railroadcompany to use it was Camden and Amboy. Limellghts, which were usedto llght theaterS stages on both sides of the Atlantic, wereconsidered too intense for trains. Eventually, acetylene, which didnot extinguish in the wind, replaced oil in headlamps.

    D In 1851, the first electric headlamp was developed. Thisheadlamp had two major drawbacks: It required its own generator,which did not become portable until the 1890s when steam generatorsbecame common, and the delicate parts broke easily as a result ofthe rough rails over which the trains traveled. Russia ran thefirst train equipped with

    1 BrE: travelled 2BrE: kerosene 3BrE: theatre

  • UNIT 3: TRANSPORTATION

    a battery-powered electric headlamp. The French first used steamgenerators to power electric headlamps on trains. In the UnitedStates in 1897, George C. Pyle developed an efficient electricheadlamp. By 1 9 1 6, federal law required trains to have electricheadlamps.

    E Automobiles, the exciting new mode of transportatlon4 at thattime, needed headlamps, too. The requirements for car headlampswere more stringent than those for trains: Because roads were evenrougher than ratls, cars required more rugged parts, and the steamgenerators had to be smaller than those in trains. Despite thesetougher requirements, the Columbia Electric Car was equipped withelectric headlamps in 1 898.

    F Electric headlamps made travel at all hours and in almost allweather possible, something we take for granted today.

    Answer the questions about Firat Beadl

    (Video) Barron's Essential Words for the IELTS Unit 1 Text 1

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